AirWare: Technical Description
The AirWare system provides and integrated framework for
easy access to advanced tools of air quality assessment, monitoring com modeling, forecasts,
data analysis and the design and evaluation of air quality control strategies.
AirWare is implemented as a distributed client-server system
that is web accessible, i.e., the end user client is any networked
computer with any standard web browser.
Its main components are the data base server,
several linked (cascading, nested) simulation and optimisation models,
embedded GIS, and analytical functions implemented as "logical application servers"
one one or more physical server,
and the user interface which is based an Apache web server and http/HTML.
For an overview and summary of the main functionality see:
AirWare Specifications 2011 (pdf)
The entire system can be embedded in a real-time expert system
for scheduled or event driven execution of any or all functions,
including the management of real-time monitoring data, nowcasting
and forecasting, and regular reports.
AirWare is available both for local installation (with user access through
the local network or external Internet connections, or as a remote installation,
application service, SaaS (Software as a Service), or "bespoke cloud computing":
Release 6.x ,
which is fully web based, accessible from any, including mobile, client.
Clients which can be anywhere on the net (Intranet or external Internet)
use a standard web browser as the only client software required.
For publications on and presentations of the system
and its basic functionality, screndumps from selected applications
and on-line demos, please refer to: /AIRWARE/slides.html
For the latest development of the AirWare real-time system, please visit
the WEBAIR EUREKA E! 3266 project descriptions,
that also lnks to a number of reference implementations and current projects.
- Integrated data base management for emission inventories and
meteorological and air quality time series data, linked to on-line monitoring systems,
- A suite of simulation and optimization models for strategic analysis,
optimization, and operational forecasting and real-time nowcasting,
- An embedded geographic information system, and
- Embedded expert systems functionality (emission estimates), and
- Assessment and reporting functions including alerts and alarms driven by the continuous forecasts
- Emisison control (multi-criteria) optimization
AirWare is designed as a modular system; it can integrate a range of
Geographical information system
Geographic background data including administrative divisions, land
use and land cover, population data, transportation networks, water bodies,
orography (DEMs), satellite imagery (LANDSAT, SPOT, IKONOS) and aerial photography,
that are managed with the embedded GIS, spanning several levels of nested geographioc domains:
LIFE+: model domains provides and example.
Monitoring data analysis
Monitoring time-series data, including the linkage to on-line
monitoring stations, and the statistical analysis of these time series data;
Air Quality Models
Emission inventories for a range of different source types and
pollutants (open list, data driven);
source types include major stacks and boilers (grouped into industrial plants),
small stacks, area sources, line sources, volume sources, and optional mobile sources
such as ships or airplanes.
An embedded rule-based expert system simplifies the task of
estimating unmeasured emissions; temporal patterns, emission time series,
VOC speciation lists, are compiled in a georeferenced object oriented hypermedia
A range of air quality simulation models, ranging from simple
regulatory steady-state Gaussian models (basic models implemented include the
USEPA model AERMOD, Release 09292, in
both short-term (1-24 hours) and long-term (seasonal, annual, multi-year)
implementations) to dynamic multi-layer and 3D model systems (Eulerian and
Lagrangian models) including 3D dynamic nested grid photochemical model
with the non-hydrostatic 3D nested meteorological prognostic model/preprocessor MM5,
and optional external third party models such as CMAQ, CALMET/CALPUFF, etc.
Another optional built-in model is an efficient dynamic 3D
CFD code, TIMES,
(developed by IMM-RAS, Institute for Mathematical Modelling of the
Russian Academy of Sciences , partner in the EUREKA E!3266 WEBAIR
project) that uses a 3-D dynamic wind field generated by a
built in diagnostic wind model, post-processing MM5 generated wind fields.
The model can be used both on a regional scale as well as for near-field
simulation of street canyons or accidental releases
in the vicinity of building obstacles.
AirWare includes operational numerical weather forecasts,
that drive the air quality models in forecating mode or with historical
re-analysis data over several years for stratefgic asnalysis and EIA.
Dynamic simulation of Indoor air pollution
is coupled to exposure and impact assessment, and the simultaion of
mobile sources is used for detailed analysis of
transportation (road, rail, aviation, shipping) in a set of fully interoperable simulation models.
Specific applications of these models include:
the simulation and analysis of traffic-generated emissions and immissions
the simulation of emission and immissions from
domestic heating and the impacts of district heating schemes.
Linkage to external models covering areas such as the energy system
of traffic, i.e., major sources of air pollution;
this includes MARKAL-type energy analysis and optimization, as well as
linkages to traffic simulation models like EMME/2 and
Decision Support Tools
- Tools for impact assessment
range from models for population exposure to an optional rule-based expert
system for screening level environmental impact assessment.
Decision support tools,
ranging from simple impact assessment and
post-processing tools to complex multi-criteria optimization models
for the design of optimal investment strategies in pollution control equipment.
For the design of cost-efficient control strategies, AirWare
requires cost functions for alternative emission reduction strategies
for each source. The results minimizes a complex spatially
distributed and non-linear environmental damage function,
subject to monetary (net present value) constraints in investment and
The theoretical background of the two-tiered optimization approach is described,
for a example, in of the earlier project, SIMTRAP:
MC Decision support tools,
AirWare requires the following basic data sets:
background maps with administrative
satellite data or aerial photography and scanned maps
can be used together with vector maps;
digital elevation model (DEM) for complex terrain;
the system can import data from all
common GIS and RS/IP systems;
road network (geometry) graph for traffic emission/immission model;
the system can import data from traffic simulation systems like
EMME/2 or VISUM/DYNEMO.
gridded (usually by hectare) or
associated with building block boundaries, required for
point sources (major industries, power plants):
location, emission rates, stack height; optional: industry
background data, production an energy use data, stack diameter,
emission temperature and velocity.
area sources (domestic, air ports, industrial estates):
location (gridded or set of polygons, emission rate, height.
line sources (traffic): road segment attributes like traffic
density, frequency or direct emission data.
optional volume and mobile sources e.g., for ships or airplanes.
time-series of basic meteorological data (half hourly or hourly,
covering at least one year or the period of interest for the long-term
models): wind direction and speed, air
temperature, mixing height, stability class, precipitation.
Mixing height and stability class can be estimated,
if necessary, using cloud cover and/or solar radiation data;
the system can be linked to on-line monitoring networks.
Please note that at least three well spaced stations are
required for the (optional) objective analysis module of
the wind field generator.
Air Quality Data
hourly or half hourly observation data from one or more
station location and regular time series for each parameter.
Please note that many (spatial) statistical analysis functions
require at least three reasonably distant observation stations;
the system can be linked to on-line monitoring networks.
discrete cost functions (investment and operational costs, social costs
where applicable) for a set of alternative emission reduction and control
strategies for each emission source to be considered (optional for
the optimization model).
These main components are integrated with an interactive and
graphical user interface designed for users with little or no
computer experience and infrequent use.
Both local or remote server (ASP) installations
use a standard web browser including Java functionality for the user interface.
Extensive data bases provides background information on
legislation, pollutants, emission sources and coefficients,
models, health effects, and control technologies.
AirWare supports remote, distributed low-bandwidth clients
with standard web browser software with a minimum screen resolution:
XVGA 1024*768, (1280*1024 recommended) and true color.
AirWare is currently supported for Linux and UNIX servers
and available in a range of turn-key solutions;
Client support is platform independent and requires only a
standard web browser and Internet access.
The hardware required for AirWaredepends very much on the scale of
the application, and the type of models to be included.
The easiest solution is a complete ASP (application service provider)
set-up, where models and all data bases are maintained and run at ESS,
all access to the system is through the Internet:
the user requires only a standard web browser and a reasonable
fast Internet connection (min. of 1Mb recommended).
For a local installation, a cluster of high-performance servers is ideal;
a powerful dual-processor server (e.g., dual Intel Xeon 3+ GHz)
is the minimum configuration recommended.
A graphics resolution of 1280*1024 (true color) is
recommended (nice); as a minimum, clients require
only 1024*768 pixels, 256 simultaneous colors.
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