WaterWare Release Notes
    Release Level 5.0
    Release Date 2005 06
    Revision Level 1.0

WRM Water Resources Model

WRM, the dynamic   water allocation and budget model   is the central model in WaterWare.

The entry point is a selector of scenarios, which can be sorted and filtered by several properties such as name, author, modification date, or location.

Another option at the level of the scenario selection is the possibility to create a new scenario with an empty template. To facilitate and simplify the generation and editing of new scenarios, it is also possible to copy an existing one and modify it incrementally under a new name.
Once selected, the summary information about a scenario includes its name and a short description, the author (the only user that can change or delete that scenario), location, and start date for the simulation and water year.

Model parameters at the scenario level include multipliers for sectoral water demand (municipal, industrial, agricultural, tourism) as well as global time series for temperature and precipitation that are used through out the scenario unless specified otherwise at the level of individual nodes or reaches.
The main components of a WRM scenario are In addition to the global parameters,

  • nodes, including reservoirs,
  • reaches, including options for lateral inflow,
  • and aquifers
together with their parameters and the time series of inputs and demands. A selector of all available nodes and the possibility to a new node to the set lead to the node editor tool.
Properties or parameters of a node depend on its type.

They include basic properties including its location and elevation, specification of release or allocation/diversion strategies, time series of demands or flow targets, and loss rates, consumptive use factors, etc. For economic evaluation, costs and benefits of water supply and use can also also be specified as unit costs.

A key type of data are time series of daily values of precipitation and temperature, flows (for start nodes), and target flows or demand (for reservoirs, diversions, demand nodes, or control nodes).
The time series that specify the dynamic behaviour of the nodes and reaches and also control aquifer dynamics can be selected from a common data base of model related time series. The common selector tools provides a choice of applicable data sets, organized by parameters and constrained by locations. An import function supports uploading of data sets in simple formats like csv.

A preview function facilitates inspection of the data set before its selection and linking to a node. For each time series, a scaling factor or multiplier can be chosen to efficiently define alternative scenarios, e.g., by scaling demands.
Together with the nodes, reaches complete the network representation of a river basin. Reaches are defined as the connection between two nodes, and have geometric properties (length and cross-sections), the slope being derived from the elevation difference of the nodes connected.

Reaches can also received lateral inflow from their immediate subcatchments, which can be specified directly with a time series of flow data, or through daily rainfall data and a runoff coefficient.

Reaches can also interact with the groundwater to simulate exfiltration and infiltration depending on the respective water levels.
Model results are summarised into an overall basin wide mass budget, keeping track of all

  • inputs depending on the spatial organization of the basin (subcatchment runoff, natural springs and pumped wells, inter basin transfers, desalination, direct rainfall; and
  • outputs (outflow, evaporation, consumptive use, interbasin transfers)
  • and storage changes (reservoirs, groundwater system).
The models also keep track on supply /demand ratios, reliability of supply, and special conditions like foods or droughts.

Water supply, demand, a supply/demand ratio, consumptive, use, losses, and reliability are also shown on a sectoral basis to facilitate keeping track of different allocation policies and rules for a scenario. These can be controlled with the global sectoral multipliers defined for the scenario, or with individual multipliers and scaling factors for each of the demand nodes in the system.
In addition to the aggregated results for the entire basin and by sector, results can be shown and analysed for every individual node, with a different structure according to the node type.

This includes a tabular summary of the respective mass budget, as well as the time series of individual node type specific concepts (see below) on a daily basis.

The basic flow data for a WRM scenario resulting from hydrometeorological inputs, allocation and demand patterns, are then available as input to the basin wide dynamic water quality model STREAM.
The time series cover

  • all inputs (inflow from upstream sources)
  • outputs (outflow or return flow to downstream, nodes)
  • losses (evaporation and seepage),
  • dynamic state (storage), and
  • derived concepts such as shortfalls or excess flows (flooding conditions).

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