WaterWare Release Notes
    Release Level 5.0
    Release Date 2005 06
    Revision Level 1.0

River Basin Object Data Base

River Basin Objects are the central data type in WaterWare.

Objects can be georeferenced (like reservoirs or monitoring stations), or generic, like crops.

The primary selector shows the object classes supported and available. With every class name, the number of elements or instances is shown.

For each object class, there are generic and type specific functions, data structures and editing tools available.
The basic object display page shows the usual meta data together with

  • a map indicating the location of the object where applicable,
  • a hypertext page describing it,
  • a set of buttons leading to specific detailed pages depending on the object class;
  • one or more selectors leading to related or child objects "belonging" to the parent object, like monitoring time series data to a monitoring station.

Specific Data describing an object in detail can include:
  • Basic attributes in tabular form;
  • Administrative information, contact addresses;
  • area-elevation table and graph for subcatchments;
  • depth-area-volume table and graph for reservoirs.
  • land-use table and pie chart for subcatchments;
  • crop table and pie-chart for irrigation districts;
  • instrumentation description for monitoring stations;
  • temporal distribution of water demand etc. for crops.

One example of special properties of an object is the institutional or contact address for the owner or operator of a given object like a monitoring station, reservoir, irrigation district etc.

The contact address includes both an institutional address and a contact person.

The institutional and contact address for any object is avaiulable for purely administrative purposes. However, since the list of attributes is open, other relavant data for operational purposes can be added (for example, last inspection or calibration dates for monitoring equippment, etc.).

An important object class is constituted by reservoirs.

They correspond to the reservoirs nodes in the water resources model, but can contain additional data of operation or administrative nature not used by the model. Release policies, power generation data, or information related to multiple use of reservoirs such as fishery and recreational use are typical examples.

Reservoir geometry: A specific property of a lake or man-made reservoir is its geometry: this defines the relationship between depth and area and volume, which is used, for example, by the water resources model to describe the storage and release characteristics of a reservoir under various operating conditions.

A dedicated editor accepts triplets of depth- area-volume values and genertes the corresponding graphical interpretation from the tabular data stored in the data base.

Sub-catchments are among the object classes that directly relate to models, in this case the rainfall-runoff model RRM

RRM model scenarios can inherit the attributes of a given basin as their default or starting values.

The elevation distribution is used for vertical corrections factor for both temperature and precipitation in the Rainfall-Runoff model.

A similar distributed attribute is land use distribution, again for sub-catchments.

The land use classes re chosen to provide enough detail for a realistic representation, but also aggregate cleanly into the clases used in the rainfall-runoff model or used for distributed recharge values in the groundwater model.


Climate stations: a special object are long-term climate stations for which a 30 year baseline climate data set is available.

The data set includes monthly averages for a 30 year period (1931-1960). The data are derived from the original Leemans-Kramer data set developed at IIASA.

(Source: Leemans, Rik and Wolfgang P. Cramer, 1991. The IIASA Database for Mean Monthly Values of Temperature, Precipitation and Cloudiness of a Global Terrestrial Grid. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria, RR-91-18, 62 pages. )
Other examples for objects are crops, related to the irrigation water demand model, from where the individual crops and their basic attributes can be loaded.

Crops are not georeferenced, but may be applicable (available in the selector) only within a bio-geographic region. They share the same meta data as all georeferenced objects, including name (as well as the scientific name), a short description of the information source, author, creation and modification dates.

Primary object data include crop water demand, planting date, growing period, and an open list of attributes such as average market price or average and maximum yield estimates.
Specific data for crops include the temporal distribution of water related data. These are:

  • physiological crop water demand;
  • soil moisture tolerance, expressed as % of field capacity;
  • shading factor, reducing soil evaporation;
  • Kc factor used in the CROPWAT model (multiplier for potential evaporation).
These data can be specified in a table, with ten value distributed equally over the growing period, i.e., every value representing 10% of the relevant growing period.

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