Spatial Planning Seminar:
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Spatial Planning: WHAT IS THIS?

Selected definitions, or attempts at a definition ...

YOUR submissions, extensions, corrections and/or comments, informative or at least funny, are most welcome !
    In the English speaking world, the terms land use planning, town and country planning, regional planning, town planning, urban planning, and urban design are often used interchangeably, and will depend on the country in question but do not always have the same meaning. In Europe the preferred term is increasingly spatial planning or more recently territorial cohesion (for regional and trans-national planning). In Australia, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand, the term town planning is common, although regional planning and land use planning are also used. In the United States and Canada, the terms urban planning and regional planning are more commonly used.

    In German, there is

    • Raumordnung (administrative, regulatory, declaratory, policy oriented),
    • Raumplanung (the more physical, geographical, functional and process oriented aspects),
    • Regionalplanung, Stadtplanung, with the implied corresponding geographical scope.
    • and more specific sectoral sub-areas such as:
      Landnutzungs-, Bebauungs-, Verkehrs-, Energie-, Wasserwirtschafts-, Umwelt-, Naturschutz-, Lawinenschutzplanung, ......


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spatial_planning

    Spatial planning refers to the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. Discrete professional disciplines which involve spatial planning include land use planning, urban planning, regional planning, transport planning and environmental planning. Other related areas are also important, including economic planning and community planning. Spatial planning takes place on local, regional, national and inter-national levels and often result in the creation of a spatial plan.

    There are numerous definitions of spatial planning. One of the earliest definitions comes from the European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter (often called the 'Torremolinos Charter'), adopted in 1983 by the European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT):

    "Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy."

    Numerous planning systems exist around the world. Especially in Northwestern Europe spatial planning has evolved greatly since the late 1950s.


    http://www.winchester.gov.uk/FAQ.asp?id=SX9452-A783B346

    Local Development Framework: What is spatial Planning?
    The Government has defined spatial planning as 'going beyond traditional land use planning to bring together and integrate policies for the development and use of land with other policies and programs which influence the nature of places and how they function.'

    In practice this means that the LDF process is very different from the Local Plan. It provides planning authorities with an opportunity to take a fresh look at their areas, develop strategic approaches to planning that will deliver sustainable development and reflect the local distinctiveness of the area and the aspirations of the local community.

    The LDF will be one of the key components for delivering the aspirations of the Council's Community Strategy.


    Spatial planning definition There are, to quote the Planning Officers Society, 'many definitions of spatial planning in existence' (POS, 2004, pp8). Albrechts (2001, pp1) sees spatial planning as: 'not a single concept, procedure or tool. It is a set of concepts, procedures and tools that must be tailored to whatever situation is at hand if desirable outcomes are to be achieved. Strategic plan making is as much about the process, institutional design and mobilization as about development of substantial theories. This broad area is reflected in the place and the role of planners in strategic spatial planning.'

    In PPS 12 the ODPM suggests that: 'Local planning authorities should adopt a spatial planning approach to local development frameworks to ensure the most efficient use of land by balancing competing demands within the context of sustainable development,' (ODPM, 2004, pp3). PPS 12 goes on to define spatial planning thus 'Spatial planning goes beyond traditional land use planning to bring together and integrate policies for the development and use of land with other policies and programmes which influence the nature of places and how they function. This will include policies which can impact on land use, for example, by influencing the demands on or needs for development, but which are not capable of being delivered solely or mainly through the granting of planning permission and may be delivered through other means,' (ODPM, 2004, pp3).

    Spatial planning is a wider, more inclusive approach to considering the best use of land than traditional land-use planning. Land-use planning has an approach that focuses on the regulation and control of land whereas spatial planning provides greater scope for the Council and other organisations to promote and manage change in the area. The Local Development Framework will still provide mechanisms by which future land uses may be managed(and so give confidence to land owners and investors) but it will also open doors of opportunity and highlight other investment opportunities and plans from other responsible stakeholders.


    LAND USE PLANNING is the term used for a branch of public policy which encompasses various disciplines which seek to order and regulate the use of land in an efficient and ethical way.

    Land-use planning is the process by which decisions are made on future land uses over extended time periods, that are deemed to best serve the general welfare.

    The framework for how land is used and developed is largely provided by the town and country planning system, which aims to secure the most efficient and effective use of land in the public interest, and to ensure that facilities like roads, schools and sewers are built where they are needed.

    LAND USE PLANNING - Comprehensive planning carried out by units of local government, for all areas under their jurisdiction, to identify the optimum uses of land and to serve as a basis for the adoption of zoning or other land use controls.

    LAND USE PLANNING - Local development of a plan for the future use of land within its jurisdiction, established by zoning laws.

    Despite confusing nomenclature, the essential function of land use planning remains the same whatever term is applied. The Canadian Institute of Planners offers a definition that: "[Land use] planning means the scientific, aesthetic, and orderly disposition of land, resources, facilities and services with a view to securing the physical, economic and social efficiency, health and well-being of urban and rural communities"[1]

    At its most basic level land use planning is likely to involve zoning and transport infrastructure planning. In most developed countries, land use planning is an important part of social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment.

    Land-use planning is often guided by laws and regulations. The major instrument for current land-use planning is the establishment of zones that divide an area into districts which are subject to specified regulations. Although land-use planning is sometimes done by private property owners, the term usually refers to permitting by government agencies. Land-use planning is conducted at a variety of scales, from plans by local city governments to regulations by federal agencies. The United States has never developed a national land-use plan because land use is considered a local concern.

    Land-use planning, in large part, has focused on urban planning. Increasingly, land-use planning is done at larger scales and involves multiple issues. Awareness of environmental concerns, coupled with the wide availability of technical tools that include digital maps at all scales, has led to new approaches to land-use planning. These approaches often use ideas from landscape ecology, such as the concepts of patches; edges, boundaries, and fragmentation; buffer zones; and corridors and connectivity.

    Spatial planning moves focus from a land-use planning approach based on regulation and control of land, to a wider more far ranging approach that aims to ensure the best use of land by assessing competing demands. To this end social, economic and environmental factors are taken into account in producing a decision that is more conducive to sustainable development. The factors can include health, education, employment, crime prevention, leisure, biodiversity, recycling, energy etc.


    http://www.nrca.org/plandev/SpatialPlanning/whatisSpatialPlanning.htm

    WHAT IS SPATIAL PLANNING? This is an activity centered on making decisions relating to the location and distribution of land use activities.

    ROLE OF SPATIAL PLANNING

    • To create the conditions for an enhanced quality of life.
    • Fulfilling the aims of efficiency and democracy through public participation.
    • Meeting the challenge of sustainable development.
    OBJECTIVES OF SPATIAL PLANNING
    One of the main objectives of Spatial Planning is to ensure that the utilization of land resources is planned and implemented in an organized manner to meet the needs of present and future generation.

    APPROACH REQUIRED
    Spatial Planning requires an integrative and comprehensive planning approach in order to rationalize the appropriate land use activities.

    RATIONALE FOR SPATIAL PLANNING

      Jamaica's urban environment is decaying at a rapid pace hence the need to establish a national planning framework to accommodate new development and growth of existing development nodes.
    • To promote and foster sustainable development along the principles of the five S i.e. Synergy, Sustainability, Sensible, Strategic and Supportive.
    • To ensure sustainable utilization of national land resources.


    http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/sdf/Pages/WhatisanSDF.aspx

    What is a Spatial Development Framework?
    Spatial planning aims to positively shape the way Cape Town develops in space into the future. It includes the preparation of plans that will guide the physical development of Cape Town (where, what and when).

    Spatial plans are used to assess applications submitted by property developers. They also guide changes in land-use rights and guide public investment in infrastructure.

    Spatial plans do not however, give or take away land use rights. The implementation of these plans relies on partnerships between the private sector, communities and other spheres of government.

    A SDF is therefore a useful and effective tool with which to manage and monitor growth and development in the city, and informs investors about what they are buying? and where development opportunities exist in the short and longer term.

    It will offer predictability, as once it has been approved by the Provincial Government of the Western Cape, it will be the basis on which City and the Provincial officials assess new development proposals both in terms of relevant environmental and planning legislation.

    A SDF is required by law as part of the City's Integrated Development Plan (Five Year Plan).


    http://www.thelandscapepartnership.com/services/Spatial-planning/

    Spatial Planning
    We define spatial planning as "integrating social, environmental, cultural and economic interest to develop attractive, sustainable and functional environments".

    This leads us to focus on the relationships between people and places and understand environmental, cultural, social and economic landscapes at all scales.

    Our aim is to understand our client's needs, so we can respond effectively to current challenges, and we provide particular expertise in five key areas:

    • Responding to climate change
    • Planning for localism
    • Securing sustainable development
    • Developing in sensitive environments
    • Managing natural resources
    The Practice advises on national, strategic and local government policy and formulates spatial planning policy and strategic guidance, including advice on cumulative impacts, habitats and landscape policies. We carry out Sustainability Appraisal (incorporating Strategic Environmental Assessment) and are at the leading edge of specialist advice on green infrastructure and renewable energy.

    We are involved in projects from feasibility stage to the negotiation of planning obligations. We work collaboratively to deliver development, with particular skills and experience in dealing with sensitive sites and coordinating constraints evaluations and Environmental Impact


    http://consult.nelincs.gov.uk/portal/localdevelopmentplans/cs/corestrategyrpo?pointId=1213021465144

    Definition of Spatial Planning Spatial planning is a wider, more inclusive approach to considering the best use of land than traditional land-use planning. Land-use planning has an approach that focuses on the regulation and control of land whereas spatial planning provides greater scope for the Council and other organisations to promote and manage change in the area. The Local Development Framework will still provide mechanisms by which future land uses may be managed (and so give confidence to land owners and investors) but it will also open doors of opportunity and highlight other investment opportunities and plans from other responsible stakeholders.

    The Local Development Documents will promote spatial planning by:

    • Setting a Broad Vision for an Area
      • Local Development Documents must be consistent with national planning policy; be in general conformity with the Regional Spatial Strategy; have regard to the Community Strategy and other relevant local strategies and initiatives; and be rooted in sustainable development, and reflect regional and local circumstances.
    • Managing Change
      • Local Development Documents must be pro-active and manage beneficial change related to the use and development of land. They must also remain relevant and up-to-date through monitoring and frequent review, and
    • Providing Greater Clarity on Implementation
      • Local Development Documents must be specific and measurable via appropriate targets, milestones and indicators.


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