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Release Level 1.9
Release Date 2000 06


Revision Level 1.0




BLTM - Branched Lagrangian Transport Model

ABSTRACT

BLTM uses Lagrangian calculations that are unconditionally stable and based upon a reference frame that moves at a velocity equal to the mean channel flow velocity. BLTM results are within the accuracy required by most water-quality studies. The BLTM is easily applied to unsteady flows in networks of one-dimensional channels with fixed geometry and tributary inflows. Reaction kinetics for up to 10 constituents are provided in a user-written decay-coefficient subroutine. Postprocessor plot programs improve the utility of the model. The model routes any number of interacting constituents through a system of one-dimensional channels.

The following programs are included in the BLTM distribution:

      cbltm   - branched Lagrangian transport model
      qbltm   - bltm with qual2e
      tbltm   - bltm with temperature
      bbltm   - builds the input file for BLTM
      bqual2e - builds the input file for QBLTM
      mrg     - builds a table of data by adding or modifying a
                column based on data in files old.bc and in,
                writes file bc
      ctplt   - plots concentration vs time and compute the RMS error
      cxplt   - plots concentration vs distance
      equltmp - computes the equilibrium temperature from daily extreme
                temperatures
      solar   - computes the solar radiation from empirical equations

   The following programs are included in the BLTM distribution and are
   also available as a separate DAFLOW distribution:

      daflow  - diffusion analogy flow model
      wdaflo  - diffusion analogy flow model, uses either flat file or
                wdm data base
      flwopt  - computes RMS errors to optimize hydraulic coefficients
      bdaflow - builds the input file for DAFLOW
      cel     - computes coefficients for area and width equations
      intrp   - interpolates data to an even interval
      unit    - reads unit values from adaps and uses a rating table
                to do something
      flwplt  - estimates ungaged inflow and plot

METHOD
   The model solves the one-dimensional convective-diffusion equation
   with reaction kinetics.

DATA REQUIREMENTS
   Flow--areas, top widths, and velocities at each grid point are
   needed for each time step.  Initial conditions--concentration of
   each constituent at each grid at time zero.  Boundary
   conditions--concentration of each constituent at upstream junctions
   and in each tributary during each time step.

OUTPUT OPTIONS
   Data are output in text files.  Postprocessor programs are available
   to produce graphical and tabular summaries.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
   BLTM and DAFLOW are written in Fortran 77 with the following
   extensions: include files and variable program names longer than 6
   characters.  wdaflow uses the UTIL, ADWDM, and WDM libraries from
   LIB. A subset of these libraries is provided with the code and may
   be used instead of the libraries; this subset uses INTEGER*4 and
   mixed type equivalence. For more information, see System
   Requirements in LIB. ctplt, cxplt, and flwplt may be implemented
   with a user-supported Computer Associates DISSPLA library or the LIB
   libraries GRAPH, UTIL, and STATS.

DOCUMENTATION
   Jobson, H.E., and Schoellhamer, D.H., 1987, Users manual for a
      Branched Lagrangian transport model:  U.S. Geological Survey
      Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4163, 73 p.

   Jobson, H.E., 1997, Enhancements to the Branched Lagrangian
      transport modeling system: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources
      Investigations Report 97-4050, 57 p.

   Schoellhamer, D.H., and Jobson, H.E., 1986, Programmers manual for a
      one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model:  U.S. Geological
      Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4144, 101 p.

   Schoellhamer, D.H., and Jobson, H.E., 1986, Users manual for a one-
      dimensional Lagrangian transport model:  U.S. Geological Survey
      Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4145, 95 p.

REFERENCES
   Bulak, J.S., Hurley, N.M., Jr., and Crane, J.S., 1993, Production,
      mortality, and transport of striped bass eggs in Congaree and
      Wateree Rivers, South Carolina:  American Fisheries Society
      Symposium 14, 1993, p. 29-37.

   Hurley, N.M., Jr., 1991, Transport simulation of striped bass eggs
      in the Congaree, Wateree, and Santee Rivers, South Carolina:
      U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report
      91-4088, 57 p.

   Jobson, H.E., 1981, Temperature and solute-transport simulation in
      streamflow using a Lagrangian reference frame:  U.S. Geological
      Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 81-2, 165 p.

   Jobson, H.E., 1985, Modeling temperature, BOD, DO and the nitrogen
      cycle in the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, using the land flow
      model:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2264.

   Jobson, H.E., 1987, Modeling dye and gas transport in the Missouri
      River, Nebraska, the Madison effluent channel, Wisconsin, and
      Trinity River, Texas: Water Resources Research, v. 23, no. 1.

CONTACTS
   Operation:
      U.S. Geological Survey
      Office of Surface Water
      Harvey Jobson
      415 National Center
      Reston, VA 20192

      hejobson@usgs.gov


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