AirWare
air quality assessment & management
Reference and User Manual
AirWare   On-line Reference Manual
  Release Level 7.0
  Revision Level beta
  Release Date 2015 03

Last modified on:   Monday, 13-Jul-15 14:29 CEST

Air Quality Standards

AirWare supports any set of user defined air quality standards. The standard are used for the evaluation of model results (at simulated monitoring stations) or monitoring data time series

Within the European Union, the standard and thresholds used for evaluation (analysis of compliance) are defined by:

  1. COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2008/50/EC Air Quality Framework Directive, L 152/1, ANNEX XI, Limit Values for the Protection of Human Health
  2. DIRECTIVE 2002/3/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 12 February 2002 relating to ozone in ambient air
  3. DIRECTIVE 2000/69/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 16 November 2000 limit values for benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air
  4. COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air

these standards are saved in the data base and used as the default values to determine compliance of monitored or simulated ambient air quality values.

mysql> select * from AIR.limit_value where standard ='EU';
+----------+-----------+------------+-------+-------+------------------+
| standard | pollutant | avg_period | value | unit  | type             |
+----------+-----------+------------+-------+-------+------------------+
| EU       | CO        |          8 |    10 | mg/m3 | limit human      |
| EU       | NO2       |          1 |   200 | ug/m3 | limit human      |
| EU       | SO2       |          1 |   350 | ug/m3 | limit human      |
| EU       | SO2       |         24 |   125 | ug/m3 | limit human      |
| EU       | PM10      |         24 |    50 | ug/m3 | limit human      |
| EU       | O3        |          8 |   120 | ug/m3 | limit human      |
| EU       | NO2       |       8760 |    40 | ug/m3 | limit human      |
| EU       | NOx       |       8760 |    30 | ug/m3 | limit vegetation |
| EU       | NO2       |       8760 |   400 | ug/m3 | alert            |
| EU       | SO2       |       8760 |    20 | ug/m3 | limit vegetation |
| EU       | PM10      |       8760 |    40 | ug/m3 | limit human      |
| EU       | SO2       |          1 |   500 | ug/m3 | alert            |
| EU       | O3        |          1 |   180 | ug/m3 | information      |
| EU       | O3        |          1 |   240 | ug/m3 | alert            |
| EU       | O3        |          1 |   180 | ug/m3 | limit human      |
| EU       | PM10      |          1 |    50 | ug/m3 | limit human      |
+----------+-----------+------------+-------+-------+------------------+ 
These reference values (tagged with the coreesponding jurisdiction) can be edited in the various model/scenario interface screens.

Other sets of standard include:

2008/50/EC, Air Quality Framework Directive

Pollutant Limit value Averaging period Legal nature Annual permitted excedences
Fine particles (PM2.5) 25µg/m3 one year target value by 1.1.2010 n/a
Particulates (PM10) 50µg/m3 24 hours limit value by 1.1.2005 35
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 350µg/m3 1 hour limit value by 1.1.2005 24
  125µg/m3 24 hours limit value by 1.1.2005 3
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) 200µg/m3 1 hour limit value by 1.1.2010 18
  40µg/m3 1 year limit value by 1.1.2010 n/a
Lead (Pb) 0.5µg/m3 1 year limit value by 1.1.2005, modifications for the vicinity of specific industrial sources n/a
Carbon monoxide (CO) 10mg/m3 Max.daily 8 hrs mean limit value by 1.1.2005 n/a
Ozone (O3) 120µg/m3 Max.daily 8 hrs mean target value by 1.1.2010 25 days over 3 years
Benzene 5µg/m3 Max.daily 8 hrs mean limit value by 1.1.2010 n/a

COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/30/EC

of 22 April 1999: relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air:

I. Limit values for sulphur dioxide

Limit values must be expressed in µg/m³. The volume must be standardised at a temperature of 293 °K, and a pressure of 101,3 kPa.

Averaging period Limit value Margin of tolerance Date by which limit value is to be met
1. Hourly limit value for the protection of human health
1 hour 350 µg/m³
not to be exceeded more than 24 times a calendar year
150 µg/m³ (43 %)
on the entry into force of this Directive, reducing on 1 January 2001 and every 12 months thereafter by equal annual percentages to reach 0 % by 1 January 2005
1 January 2005
2. Daily limit value for the protection of human health
24 hours 125 µg/m³
not to be exceeded more than 3 times a calendar year
None 1 January 2005
3. Limit value for the protection of ecosystems
Calendar year and winter (1 October to 31 March) 20 µg/m³ None 19 July 2001

II. Limit values for nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen

Limit values must be expressed in µg/m³. The volume must be standardised at a temperature of 293 °K and a pressure of 101,3 kPa.

Averaging period Limit value Margin of tolerance Date by which limit value is to be met
1. Hourly limit value for the protection of human health
1 hour 200 µg/m³ NO2
not to be exceeded more than 18 times a calendar year
50 %   on the entry into force of this Directive, reducing on 1 January 2001 and every 12 months thereafter by equal annual percentages to reach 0 % by 1 January 2010 1 January 2010
2. Annual limit value for the protection of human health
Calendar year 40 µg/m³ NO2 50 % on the entry into force of this Directive, reducing on 1 January 2001 and every 12 months thereafter by equal annual percentages to reach 0 % by 1 January 2010 1 January 2010
3. Annual limit value for the protection of vegetation
Calendar year 30 µg/m³ NOx None 19 July 2001

III. Limit Values for particulate matter (PM10)

Averaging period Limit value Margin of tolerance Date by which limit value is to be met
STAGE 1
1. 24-hour limit value for the protection of human health
24 hours 50 µg/m³ PM10,
not to be exceeded more than 35 times a calendar year
50 % on the entry into force of this Directive, reducing on 1 January 2001 and every 12 months thereafter by equal annual percentages to reach 0 % by 1 January 2005 1 January 2005
2. Annual limit value for the protection of human health
Calendar year 40 µg/m³ PM10 20 % on the entry into force of this Directive, reducing on 1 January 2001 and every 12 months thereafter by equal annual percentages to reach 0 % by 1 January 2005 1 January 2005
STAGE 2 (1)
1. 24-hour limit value for the protection of human health
24 hours 50 µg/m³ PM10
not to be exceeded more than 7 times a calendar year
To be derived from data and to be equivalent to the Stage 1 limit value 1 January 2010
2. Annual limit value for the protection of human health
Calendar year 20 µg/m³ PM10 50 % on 1 January 2005 reducing every 12 months thereafter by equal annual percentages to reach 0 % by 1 January 2010 1 January 2010


(1) Indicative limit values to be reviewed in the light of further information on health and environmental effects, technical feasibility and experience in the application of Stage 1 limit values in the Member States.

DIRECTIVE 2000/69/EC

of 16 November 2000 relating to limit values for benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air

LIMIT VALUE FOR BENZENE The limit value must be expressed in µg/m³, standardised at a temperature of 293 °K and a pressure of 101,3 kPa.
Averaging period Limit value Margin of tolerance Date by which limit value is to be met
Limit value for the protection of human health
Calendar year 5 µg/m³ 100% on 13 December 2000, reducing on 1 January 2006 and every 12 months thereafter by 1 µg/m³ to reach 0 % by 1 January 2010 1 January 2010 (1)


(1) Except within zones and agglomerations within which a time-limited extension has been agreed in accordance with Article 3(2).

LIMIT VALUE FOR CARBON MONOXIDE The limit value must be expressed in mg/m³. The volume must be standardised at a temperature of 293 °K and a pressure of 101,3 kPa.

Averaging period Limit value Margin of tolerance Date by which limit value is to be met
Limit value for the protection of human health
Maximum daily 8-hour mean 10 mg/m³ 6 mg/m³   on 13 December, reducing on 1 January 2003 and every 12 months thereafter by 2 mg/m³ to reach 0 % by 1 January 2005 1 January 2005

The maximum daily 8-hour mean concentration will be selected by examining 8-hour running averages, calculated from hourly data and updated each hour. Each 8-hour average so calculated will be assigned to the day on which it ends. i.e. the first calculation period for any one day will be the period from 17:00 on the previous day to 01:00 on that day; the last calculation period for any one day will be the period from 16:00 to 24:00 on that day.

DIRECTIVE 2002/3/EC: OZONE

of 12 February 2002 relating to ozone in ambient air

All values are to be expressed in µg/m³
The volume must be standardised at 293 ° K and 101.3 kPa.
The time is to be specified in Central European Time.

AOT 40 (expressed in µg/m³-hours) means the sum of the difference between hourly concentrations greater than 80 µg/m³ ( = 40 ppb) and 80µg/m³ over a given period using only the 1 hour values measured between 09:00 and 20:00 CET each day.

Target values for ozone

  Parameter Target value for 2010
I. Target value for the protection of human health Maximum daily 8-hours mean 120 µg/m³ not to be exceeded on more than 25 days per calender year averaged over three years
I. Target value for the protection of vegetation AOT 40, calculated from 1 h values from May to July 18,000 µg/m³-h averaged over five years

Long-term objectives for ozone

  Parameter Long-term objective
I. Long-term objective for the protection of human health Maximum daily 8-hours mean within a calender year 120 µg/m³
I. Long-term objective for the protection of vegetation AOT 40, calculated from 1 h values from May to July 6,000 µg/m³-h


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