Extracted from:

Transportation and the Environment:
An Annotated Bibliography

US Department of Transportation,
The National Transportation Library

4. Hazardous Materials Issues

Our society benefits from the chemical, nuclear, electrical and
petroleum industries, which require hazardous materials in their
production and also produce hazardous wastes.  Although the
probability of an accidental release while transporting hazardous
materials is very low, there is justifiable concern that hazardous
materials be transported in the safest manner possible, since a
release can be catastrophic for a community and the environment. 
Accidental releases with catastrophic results do in fact occur, as
is evidenced by the July 14, 1991 spill of a herbicide into the,
Sacramento River, when a tank car ruptured during a derailment in
Dunsmuir CA.  Issues currently being addressed are equipment
reliability, alternative routings, modal choice, and the adequacy
of emergency response.

1.  Code of Federal Regulations 49, Parts 100 to 177, Subchapter
    C - Hazardous Materials Regulations.

2.   "Environmental Impacts of a Modal Shift," M. William
     Newstrand, Marine and Intermodal Transportation: Freight
     Movement and Environmental Issues, Transportation Research
     Record, No. 1333, Transportation Research Board, National
     Research Council, pp. 9-12, Washington, DC, 1992.

          This paper compares water transportation with rail and
          trucks.  The author theoretically transfers cargo from
          four regularly scheduled vessel movements to rail and
          trucks, then calculates the effects upon fuel
          consumption, exhaust emissions, accidents, and other
          effects of the modal shift.  This analysis attempts to
          demonstrate some of the potential environmental costs of
          a modal shift from water.  Modal impact factors used for
          the analysis are somewhat dated and the emission factor
          was an aggregate.  The modal impact factors used indicate
          that water transportation is the most fuel efficient and
          produces the least amount of emissions on a ton-mile
          basis.  Modal impact factors also indicate trucks
          obtained 60 ton-miles per gallon compared with 204 ton-
          miles per gallon for rail.  While emissions measured by
          pounds per gallon are about twice as high for rail as for
          trucks, when measured on a ton-mile basis, rail produces
          .0034 pounds per ton-mile and trucks produce .0052 pounds
          per ton-mile.

3.   Cargo Tank Rollover Protection, National Transportation Safety
     Board, Special Investigation Report Hazardous Materials
     Accident Report, Washington, DC, 1992.

          As a result of several cargo tanker accidents on the
          highways, NTSB conducted this investigation on cargo tank
          rollover protection.  The safety issues discussed are:
          the adequacy of DOT regulations concerning the design and
          performance of rollover protection devices, the
          effectiveness of cargo tanker design and construction
          oversight, and the adequacy of accident reporting and
          data collected by DOT.

4.   Proposals For the Road Traffic, Training of Drivers of
     Vehicles Carrying Dangerous Goods: Regulations 1991, Health
     and Safety Commission, London, England, 1991.

          This document contains proposals for regulations for the
          training of drivers of road vehicles carrying dangerous
          goods, including explosives and radioactive materials. 
          The regulations are necessary to implement in England the
          provisions of a European Directive imposing requirements
          for training, examinations, and certification.


5.   Assessing the Risk of Transporting Hazardous Materials by
     Aircraft: A Case Study, M.J.Davis and L.A. Haroun, Argonne
     National Lab., IL, 1991.

          This risk assessment involves the transport of PCBs by

6.   Freight Transportation: Truck, Rail Water, and Hazardous
     Materials, Transportation Research Record, No. 1313,
     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,
     Washington, DC, 1991.

          Includes several articles.  The most informative are:

     "State and Local Issues in Transportation of Hazardous
     Materials: Toward a National Strategy," M. Abkowitz, P.
     Alford, A. Boghani, J. Cashwell, E. Radwan and P. Rothberg,
     pp. 49-54.

          This paper presents findings of a recent conference whose
          objective was to identify effective methods for managing
          hazardous materials transportation within the evolving
          national system.  The conference was organized into five
          major themes: community preparedness and response;
          evaluating and communicating risk; routing and citing
          considerations; data collection and information
          management; and inspection and enforcement.

     "Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Using Different Specification Tank
     Cars to Reduce the Risk of Transporting Environmentally
     Sensitive Chemicals," C.P.L. Barkan, T.S. Glickman and A.E.
     Harvey. pp. 33-43.

          This paper presents an analytical approach to quantifying
          the benefits and costs of transporting specific chemicals
          in tank cars.  The results indicate that reduced
          liability would result from using a specific type of tank
          car, which more than offsets the increased capital and
          operating costs required.

7.   "A Probability Model To Assess the Risk of Railroad Accidents
     Involving Radioactive Material," H.B. Spraggins, J. Ozment,
     and P. Fanchon, Transportation Research Forum, Journal of the
     Transportation Research Forum, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1991.

          This paper identifies issues relevant to rail route risk
          analysis and presents a probability model of a train
          accident involving nuclear materials via movement by
          mixed train or dedicated train.

8.   Hazardous Materials on Board, C. Hild, Alaska Sea Grant Coll. 
     Program, Fairbanks, 1991.

          This book contains sections on the introduction to
          hazardous materials, common hazardous materials, confined
          spaces, personal protective equipment, hazardous spills
          on board, label and law, and references.

9.   Motor Carriers of Hazardous Materials: Who Are They? How Safe
     Are They?, L.N. Moses and I. Savage, Northwestern University
     Department of Economics, 1991.

          Using a database of 13,000 government audits of motor
          carriers, this paper investigates whether trucking firms
          that haul hazmat differ from firms that do not haul
          hazmat.  The investigation found that the haulers of
          hazmat were larger and less safe than non-hazmat


10.  Overturn of a Tractor-Semitrailer (Cargo Tank) With the
     Release of Automotive Gasoline and Fire, Carmichael,
     California February 13, 1991, National Transportation Safety
     Board, Hazardous Materials Accident Report, Washington, DC,

          This report reviews the overturn of a cargo tanker and
          the subsequent fire.  It discusses the following safety
          issues: the lack of DOT standards concerning manhole
          covers on motor vehicle tanks, the adequacy of California
          highway standards, the effectiveness of the carrier's
          evaluation of driver training and performance, and the
          lack of post-accident toxicological testing.

11.  "Purchasing Hazardous Waste Transportation Service: Federal
     Legal Considerations," J.M. Sharp, R.A. Novack, M.A. Anderson,
     American Society of Transportation and Logistics
     Transportation Journal, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp. 4-14, December

          This paper attempts to acquaint the purchaser of hazmat
          transportation with environmental statutes and gives a
          framework for compliance with these laws.

12.  "Highway Transportation of Hazardous Materials," TranSafety,
     Incorporated, Road Work Safety Report, Vol. 1, No. 6, December

          This study attempts to analyze the existing exposure and
          accident data pertaining to highway transportation of
          hazmat and summarizes the present knowledge and practices
          related to highway safety, design, traffic operations,
          and incident management.

13.  "Some Hazmat Facts," TranSafety, Incorporated, Transafety
     Reporter, Vol. 9, No. I 1, November 199 1.

          The paper discusses a Federal Highway Administration
          report, "Present Practices of Highway Transportation of
          Hazardous Materials".

14.  "Factors of Risk Assessment For Transporting High-Level
     Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel by Dedicated Train vs Regular
     Train," in Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual Meeting,
     Transportation Research Forum, New Orleans, Louisiana, October
     31, November 2, 1991.

          This paper identifies some of the risk concerns of the
          directive involving dedicated and regular train movement
          of nuclear materials and presents a model of risk which
          could be used to assess those risks.

15.  Hazardous Materials: 1990 Transportation Uniform Safety Act-
     Status of DOT Implementing Actions, U.S. General Accounting
     Office, Washington, DC, November 1991.

          This report discusses the status of DOT's implementation
          of The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety
          Act of 1990 (HMTUSA).

16.  lnspection Programs Improvements Are Under Way to Help Detect
     Unsafe Tankers, U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington,
     DC, October 1991.

          This report was prepared in response to Congressional
          inquiry concerning the Coast Guard's inspection program
          for tankers carrying oil and other hazardous cargo.  This
          report indicates that the Coast Guard has begun to
          improve its inspection program.


17.  "Technical Committee on Road Tunnels," XIX World Road
     Congress, Marrakesh. Permanent International Association of
     Road Congress, Paris, France, September 2228, 1991.

          This is a committee report which treats several topics
          including an analysis of risk resulting from the transit
          of hazardous materials.

18.  Transportation Safety: Information Strategy Needed For
     Hazardous Materials, U.S. General Accounting Office,
     Washington, DC, September 1991.

          This report was conducted to determine whether key
          initiatives to improve longstanding hazardous materials
          information shortcomings were successful, and whether any
          strategy guides DOT in directing the information
          management and technology resources devoted to its hazmat
          mission.  Findings: DOT is unable to use information
          effectively to evaluate activities or support safety
          accruing from its inspections and enforcement activities;
          and DOT has no directives outlining Department-wide
          Hazmat information management responsibilities.

19.  "Second Toxic Spill in Two Weeks Brings SP, Railroads Under
     Scrutiny," Traffic World, No. 6, Vol. 227, August 5, 1991.

          This article discusses the two recent accidents on the SP
          involving hazardous materials and the transportation of
          hazmat by rail.

20.  Proceeding of Hazmat Transport '91, A National Conference on
     the Transportation of Hazardous Materials and Wastes,
     Northwestern University, Evanston Transportation Center,
     Evanston, Illinois, June 17-19, 1991.

          This volume documents the proceedings of a national
          conference on the transportation of hazardous materials
          and waste, held at Northwestern University.  The
          conference was a neutral forum at which many viewpoints
          were aired and original research findings presented.  The
          following papers were given at the conference:

          "The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety
          Act of 1990: The U.S. Department of Transportation
          Perspective," Travis P. Dungan, Administrator, Research
          and Special Programs Administration, U.S. Department of

          This is a summary of the requirements of the statute as
          it relates to DOT and an overview of hazmat

          "The Rail Perspective on Hazardous Materials
          Transportation," James A. Hagen, Chairman of Conrail.

          This paper addresses the key issues of hazmat
          transportation by rail, in particular, Conrail.

          "Behind Human Error Accidents," John K. Lauber, National
          Transportation Safety Board.

          This paper describes several accidents from the viewpoint
          of operator performance and professional standards,
          management commitment to safety, and operator training
          and human factors outside the vehicle.


          "Data Requirements for the Development of a Quantitative
          Risk Assessment Model for Rail Transportation of
          Hazardous Materials," Christopher P.L. Barkan, Manager,
          Environmental and Hazardous Materials Research Division,
          Association of American Railroads.

          This paper states that while rail has a relatively good
          safety record, it is in the interest of the public and
          industry that improvements in hazmat transportation
          safety be as effective and efficient as possible.  To
          that end, Barkan discusses the efforts of the rail, tank
          car and chemical industries, which are working to develop
          a quantitative risk assessment model for rail
          transportation of hazmat.

          "The Law and Economics of Hazardous Materials
          Transportation: Regulating Harm by Administrative Agency
          and by Tort Liability," Thomas S. Ulen and Charles

          This paper discusses the authors' views on how best to
          achieve the socially optimal amount of precaution, while
          regulating the transportation of hazmat.

          "U.S. Department of Transportation Report on Mandated
          Studies and Regulatory Procedures to Date," Alan I.
          Roberts, Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials
          Safety, U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and
          Special Programs Administration.

          This paper discusses the status of DOT legislatively
          mandated studies and regulatory procedures.

21.  Flows of Selected Hazardous Materials By Rail, F. Beier, et
     al.  U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special
     Programs Administration, Volpe National Transportation Systems
     Center, Final Report for September 1987-April 1991,
     Washington, DC, May 1991.

          This study looks at rail traffic in 1986 and is designed
          to characterize the flow of selected hazardous materials
          and show their geographical distribution.

22.  Transportation of Hazardous Materials by Rail, National
     Transportation Safety Board, Washington, DC, Adopted May 16,

          For this study, the Safety Board conducted a study of 45
          selected railroads.

23.  "New Hazmat Regulation," Railway Age, pp. 44-45, April 1991.

          This article questions the cost-benefit from new hazmat
          regulations in light of a record which is characterized
          as good.

24.  "Revitalizing the Circuitry," Hazardous Cargo Bulletin, Vol.
     12, No. 1, January 1991.

          This article presents highlights of papers presented on a
          conference on tank containers entitled Tank Frans 90 in
          Berlin on October 17-19, 1990.  Papers were presented on
          the topic and other issues, such as quality control, tank
          cleaning, transport of dangerous substances through the
          Channel Tunnel, road vs rail, liability, and safety.


25.  "Critics say federal hazmat data bank is useful, but falls
     short of filling need," Traffic World, p. 64, March 11, 1991.

          This article finds that the Hazardous Materials
          Information Exchange does provide useful information. 
          However, this data bank is just a good beginning, and it
          should include additional information, i.e., information
          on worst-case accident scenarios.

26.  Transportation Research.Record No. 1245, Transportation
     Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC,

          Includes several articles. The most informative are:

          Comparison of Risk Measures for the Transport of
          Dangerous Commodities by Truck and Rail," by F.F.
          Saccomanno, J.H. Shortreed, M. Van Aerde, and J. Higgs,

          In this paper, the risks of transporting dangerous
          commodities by trick and by rail are expressed by four
          constituent elements: accident rates; spill probabilities
          in an accident situation; hazard areas for different
          classes of damage; and expected impacts on population and
          environment along a specified road or rail corridor.  The
          findings indicate that regardless of the material being
          shipped or the underlying transportation conditions,
          trucks reflect higher accident rates than rail; for most
          tanker systems, the probability of release in an accident
          situation is higher on rail than truck; the expected
          impacts for damage to population and property associated
          with rail transport of dangerous goods are lower than for

          "Characteristics of Accidents and Incidents in Highway
          Transportation of Hazardous Materials," by D.W. Harwood,
          E.R. Russell and J.G. Viner, pp. 23-33.

          This paper focuses on the role of traffic accidents as a
          cause of severe hazardous materials incidents. 
          Conclusions: about 99% of fatalities and 96% of injuries
          involving trucks carrying hazardous materials are not
          related to the hazmat release.  Approximately II % of
          hazmat incidents that occur on public highways are caused
          by traffic accidents, and about 99% of the fatalities and
          injuries in accidents involving hazmat-carrying trucks
          result from the physical collision.

          "Minimizing Derailments of Railcars Carrying Dangerous
          Commodities Through Effective Marshaling Strategies," by
          F.F. Saccomanno and S. El-Hage, pp.34-51.

          This paper presents a procedure for establishing and
          evaluating the effectiveness of alternative marshaling
          and buffering strategies for positioning special
          dangerous commodity cars.

          "Bicriterion Routing Scheme for Nuclear Spent Fuel
          Transportation," by Shin-Miao Chun and Paul Der-Ming
          Cheng, pp. 60-64.

          The objective of this paper is to develop an automated
          system to evaluate the trade-off between transportation
          cost and potential population at risk under different
          nuclear spent fuel transportation strategies.  The
          authors believe that by combining sophisticated
          algorithms with graphical representation of the network,
          the methodology allows the trade-offs among non-inferior
          paths to be understood more quickly and more fully.


27.  Transportation of Hazardous Material 1990, Transportation
     Research Record, No. 1264, Transportation Research Board,
     National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1990.

     Includes several articles, the most informative are:

     "Evaluating Routing Alternatives for Transporting Hazardous
     Materials Using Simplified Risk Indicators and Complete
     Probabilistic Risk Analyses," by William R. Rhyne; "Truck
     Accident Rate Model for Hazardous Materials Routing," by D.W.
     Harwood, J.6. Viner and E.R. Russell; "Fatality Risk Curves
     for Transporting Chlorine and Liquefied Petroleum Gas by Truck
     and Rail," by F.F. Saccomanno, J.H. Shortreed, and R. Mehta;
     "Restricting Hazardous Materials Routes on the Nation's
     Railroads: Some Considerations for Regulatory Analysis," by
     T.S. Glickman.

28.  Planning for Future Waste Storage and Transport Requirements,
     G.M. Holter, M.R. Shay and D.L. Stiles, Battelle Pacific
     Northwest Labs., Richland, WA, 1990.

          This paper discusses that any planning should take into
          account the storage and transport capabilities that will
          be required to properly manage the wastes, from the point
          of generation through to their ultimate disposal.

29.  Radioactive and Hazardous Materials Transportation: What Local
     Officials Are Telling Us, J.A. Walker, G.E. Ruberg, and S.H.
     Denny, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg,
     VA, 1990.

          This paper summarizes the results of a 1989 meeting of US
          Department of Energy representatives with over twenty
          local officials from cities and counties around the

30.  "Modeling Equity of Risk in the Transportation of Hazardous
     Materials," R. Gopalan, K.S. Kolluri, R. Batta and M.H.
     Karwan, Operations Research, Vol. 38.  No. 6. November-
     December 1990.

          This paper develops and analyzes a model to generate an
          equitable set of routes for hazardous material shipments.

          Its objective is to determine a set of routes that will
          minimize the total risk of travel and spread the risk
          equitably among the zones of the geographical region in
          which the transportation network is embedded.

31.  Present Practices of Highway Transportation of Hazardous
     Materials, D.W. Harwood and E.R. Russell, Midwest Research
     Inst., Kansas City, MO, May 1990.

          This report summarizes the art of safe management of
          hazardous materials transportation by highway.

32.  Proceedings of the National Conference on Hazardous Materials
     Transportation, St. Louis, Missouri, concerned with "State and
     Local Issues in Transportation of Hazardous Waste Materials:
     Towards a National Strategy," May 14-16, 1990.

          This volume documents the proceedings of a national
          conference on the transportation of hazardous materials
          held in St. Louis, Missouri, May 14-16, 1990.  The
          following papers were given at the conference:


     "Evaluation of Hazardous Material Transportation By Rail,"
     W.H. Oderwaid, M.A. Sontag.

     This paper describes the application of the data bases
     utilized in the model, along with an explanation of the
     function and philosophy of the Princeton Transportation
     Network Model.  This model is used by shippers, receivers, and
     manufacturers to evaluate current and proposed rail routings.

     "Flows of Hazardous Materials Through States By Rail," R.C.
     Hannon and P. Zebe.

     This paper presents information on the tonnages of hazardous
     materials passing through each of the contiguous 48 states and
     DC by rail.

     "Computer-Assisted Risk Assessment of Dangerous Goods
     Transportation for Haute-Normandie," S. Lassarre, K. Fedra,
     and E. Weigkricht.

     This is software based on a geographical information system to
     manage, treat and represent statistical and geographical data
     related to the evaluation of risk of transport on a road
     network in a 600 sq. km. area in France.

     "StatGen/StateNet and DOT Guidelines: Tools for Highway
     Routing of Hazardous Materials," J.W. Cashwell, J.D. Brogan,
     and C.M. Erickson.

     This presentation discusses the latest update of the
     StateGen/StateNet model, its structure and routing algorithm,
     which contains the codified USDOT Guidelines for Highway Route
     Controlled Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials.

     "Societal-Individual Risks for Hazmat Transport," F.F
     Saccomanno, J.H. Shortreed.

     This paper considers the risks associated with the transport
     of hazmat by truck and rail from two perspectives: society in
     general and the individuals residing adjacent to the route.

     "A Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Selected
     Routes: A Case Study of Hazardous Waste Transportation in
     Arizona," K.D. Pijawka, A.E. Radwan, and J. A. Soesilo.

     This study's objective was to provide an approach to selecting
     routes to a proposed hazardous waste treatment and storage
     facility, based on a risk and vulnerability assessment.

     "A Community-Focused Routing and Citing Model for Hazardous
     Materials and Wastes," G. List and P. Mirchandani.

     This is a model that shippers, carriers, and policy-makers can
     use to analyze routing problems for hazmat or routing and
     siting problems for wastes.

     "Assessing Community Safety for Hazardous Materials
     Transport," C-K.  Chiang, E.J. Cantifli, and S.T. Ying.

     This paper describes a computer model developed to assess the
     safety of a community through which hazmat will be
     transported.  The model is predictive and can be used even in
     the absence of a past history of incidents.


     "Canadian Database Development as a Support Tool To Transport
     Risk Assessment," D. A. Learning.

     This paper provides details on the databases the Risk
     Management Branch has available to assess accident trends and
     exposure to dangerous goods, and introduces a costing model
     under development to further enhance risk management.

     "Hazardous Materials Data: A Federal Perspective," R.C.

     This paper discusses the evolution and current status of the
     Hazardous Materials Incident Report System maintained by RSPA.

     "Risk Management in the Transportation of Dangerous Goods--the
     Influence of Public Perception--a Discussion," M.K. Matthews.

     This paper discusses an example of how public perception of
     risk can unduly influence the proper response to effective
     risk management in the transportation of dangerous goods.

     "Dangerous Goods Emergency Response: The Western Australian
     Experience," K. Price.

     This paper is a general overview of the experience of the
     State of Western Australia in the management of hazmat

     "State Legislative Concerns Relative to Federal Hazardous
     Materials Transportation Regulations," J.B. Reed.

     This paper indicates that states have asserted their authority
     in regard to regulations of hazmat transport where they
     believe there are inadequate or declining Federal efforts. 
     States' interests include, inspection, enforcement, emergency
     response and routing.

33.  Hazardous Materials Flow By Rail, U.S.Department of
     Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration,
     Final Report, Washington, DC, March 1990.

          This report is a quantitative overview of the movement of
          hazardous materials by rail in the U.S. The data used is
          a hazardous materials rail waybill sample developed at
          TSC from the 1983 Waybill Sample.

34.  Collision and Derailment of Montana Rail Link Freight Train
     with Locomotive Units and Hazardous Materials Release, Helena,
     Montana February 2, 1989, National Transportation Safety
     Board, Railroad Accident Report, Washington, DC, December 6,

          This report reviews the accident on Montana Rail Link and
          discusses various related safety issues, i.e., train
          operations, maintenance of airbrake system in extreme
          cold weather, oversight of employee preparedness, tank
          car performance, and documentation of hazmat shipments.

35.  Guideline for Applying Criteria to Designate Routes for
     Transporting Hazardous Materials, U.S. Department of
     Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration,
     Final Report, Washington, DC, July 1989.

          These guidelines were prepared to assist state and local
          officials in analysis of alternate routes to be used by
          highway vehicles transporting hazmat.


36.  Transport of Radioactive Material by Air, Proposal for a
     Revision of the Regulation, C Devillers, and C. Ringot, CEA
     Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenary-aux-Roses (France),
     January 1989.

          This paper states that the regulations should be modified
          in such a way that the packages used for the air
          transport of radioactive material presenting a high level
          of potential danger be designed to fulfill their safety
          function for a large fraction of the conditions likely to
          be encountered in an aircraft accident.

37.  In-Flight Fire, McDonnell Douglas DC-9-83, N56 Nashville,
     Tennessee, February 3, 1988, National Transportation Safety
     Board, Hazardous Materials Incident Report, Washington, DC,
     September 13, 1988.

          This report reviews an in-flight fire involving
          undeclared and improperly packaged hazmat and the
          procedures followed by the crew and airline.

38.  Basic Facts About the Transport of Packaged Radioactive
     Products, Amersham International Ltd. (England), 1987.

          This pamphlet details the regulations that apply to
          transport of radioactive materials and outlines the
          precautions to be taken, along with what should be done
          if a package of radioactive materials is damaged and how
          packages of radioactive materials can be recognized.

39.  Truck Transportation of Hazardous Materials - A National
     Overview, Dominic J. Maio, U.S. Department of Transportation,
     Research and Special Programs Administration, Transportation
     Systems Center, Final Report, Washington, D.C., December 1987

          This report's objective was to provide regulators and
          policy-makers with: an estimate of the national volume of
          hazardous chemicals and petroleum products transported in
          trucks, a profile of the truck fleet that carries hazmat,
          and a geographical distribution of this transport

40.  Handling and Management of Hazardous Materials and Waste, by
     Theodore H. Allegri, Sr., Chapman and Hall, New York, 1986.

     Discusses the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which
     authorized the EPA to perform specific functions to assess and
     manage hazardous wastes, including the setting of standards
     for the transportation of hazardous wastes.  Enumerates
     federal regulations concerning the loading and unloading of
     hazardous materials.

41.  "Institutional issues affecting the transport of hazardous
     materials in the United States: Anticipating strategic
     management needs," S.A. Cames, Oak Ridge, TN, Hazardous
     Materials, No. 13, 1986.

          This article attempts to discuss the complex and dynamic
          institutional environment in which hazardous materials
          are transported.  The article summarizes the
          institutional environment in which hazardous materials
          are transported and identifies related institutional

42.  Transportation of Hazardous Materials, U.S. Congress, Office
     of Technology Assessment, U.S. Government Printing Office,
     Washington, DC, July 1986.

          This study was requested by the Senate Committee on
          Science, Commerce, and Transportation to determine
          whether major safety problems exist in the transportation
          of hazardous materials that should be addressed through
          legislation, and whether appropriate technology exists
          that could improve this essential portion of our nation's
          commerce.  OTA's study is a comprehensive assessment of
          the regulations, information systems, container safety,
          and training for emergency response and enforcement.

43.  Transportation of Hazardous Materials: State and Local
     Activities, U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment,
     U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, March 1986.

          This report is in response to a Senate request that OTA
          undertake a study of the transportation of hazardous
          materials.  This study summarizes Federal programs and
          identifies three major areas of state and local
          government concern: prevention and enforcement
          activities; emergency response and training; and planning
          and data gathering.  It outlines related issues,
          describes methods by which jurisdictions are responding
          to these issues, and documents the concerns that the
          Federal government could address.

44.  Barge Collisions, Rammings and Groundings: An Engineering
     Assessment of the Potential for Damage to Radioactive Material
     Transport Casks, B.L. Hutchison, Glosten Associates, Inc. 
     Seattle, WA, January 1986.

          This study was performed to gain insight into each of
          these types of accidents, with particular attention to
          those processes that possess potential for causing
          structural damage to the casks.

45.  "What's New in Hazardous Material Transportation?", Traffic
     Management, pp. 78-83, Volume 24, No. 11, November 1985.

          This article discusses current issues in hazmat
          transportation, i.e. uniformity of regulations and
          federal pre-emption, DOT's role in the hazmat program,
          and international regulations.  This article suggests
          that uniformity of regulations and federal pre-emption is
          necessary, in addition to more leadership at DOT, to
          protect the interests of US shippers from foreign

46.  Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A
     Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the
     Period Ending December 31, 1984 N.P. Knox, L. F. Goins and
     P.T. Owen, John Ludwigson (ed.), U.S. Department of Energy,
     Information Research and Analysis Information Resources
     Organization, Oak Ridge, TN, September 1985.

     This report summarizes 513 adopted US state and local laws
     that affect the transportation of radioactive materials.

47.  Transportation of Hazardous Material: Planning and Accident
     Analysis, Transportation Research Record No. 977,
     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,
     Washington, DC, 1984.

     Includes several articles, the most informative is:

     "A Survey of Foreign Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety
     Research Since 1978," by M.E. Wright and T.S. Glickman, pp.

     This is a survey of truck, rail, and air transportation
     concerning vehicle and container technology, emergency
     response technology, traffic flow and accident information,
     risk assessment, and policy analysis regarding operations,
     emergency planning, and regulations.

48.  Assessing the Release and Costs Associated With Truck
     Transport of Hazardous Wastes, Office of Solid Waste,
     Environmental Protection Agency, l984.

          This study estimates the release from and the costs of
          the truck transport of hazardous waste.  This report
          contains these estimates for bulk and container
          shipments.  Perhaps the most important result of this
          study is that the release rates associated with
          transporting hazardous wastes by truck appear to be as
          large as the potential releases at treatment and disposal

49.  "Derailments and Release of Hazardous Materials," by Theodore
     S. Glickman and Donald B. Rosenfield, Management Science,
     Volume 30, Number 4, pp. 257-277, April 1984.

          Models were used to assess the risks of hazardous
          materials releases in train derailments.  The results of
          a model indicated that: the chances are high (95%) that
          no one will be killed when a derailment release accident
          takes place.

50.  Community Teamwork: Working Together to Promote Hazardous
     Materials Transportation Safety.  A Guide for Local Officials,
     Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Cambridge, MA, May 1983

          This Guide is designed to provide ideas on how to develop
          a hazardous materials transportation safety program at
          the most economical cost.

51.  "The Ten Most Critical Issues in Hazardous Materials
     Transportation," Transportation Research Circular,
     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,
     Number 219, Washington, DC, July 1980.

          While somewhat dated, this paper identifies ten major
          issues associated with the transportation of hazardous
          materials.  Most of the issues presented in this 1980
          paper are still major issues today.

52   Regulation of the Movement of Hazardous Cargoes, David M.
     Baldwin, National Cooperative Highway Research Program,
     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,
     Washington, DC, May 1980.

          These guidelines were prepared to assist State and local
          officials in analysis of alternate routes to be used by
          highway vehicles transporting hazmat.


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