Seveso II Safety Reports: a checklist
The "Seveso II" Directive
(96/82/EC) is aimed at the prevention of the major accident hazards
involving dangerous substances, and the limitation of their
consequences for man and the environment. The Directive wants to ensure
high levels of protection throughout the Community, consistently
One of the principal measures to achieve this aim.
is a requirement for a "Safety Report".
The relevant text from the Directive is contained in
This checklist is intended to compile and comment the information
to be contained in the safety report; it is not meant
to prescribe a particular format or style for the
presentation of the information.
The structure and format of a safety report for
an establishment covering several installations
are flexible: an operator can select the best way to present "common
aspects" for the establishment and specific details for
each installation which can present a major accident hazard
(terms in italics are defined in the Directive).
Roles and Responsibilities
Safety Reports involve two major actors:
The Competent Authority
- the plant operator (PO)
- the competent authority (CA)
The Competent Authority
- examines the Safety Report
- requests further information from the operator (if necessary)
- decides to
the bringing into use or continued use of the establishment
- allow or
- prohibit (Art. 17)
- communicates conclusions to the operator.
- applies harmonised criteria and
- to grant a dispensation indicating to which matters the information
required in the Safety Report can be limited or
- not to grant a dispensation.
Safety Report must be reviewed and updated every five years or
- at the request of the Competent Authority
- at the initiative of the operator (voluntary), where justified by
- new facts
- new technical knowledge about safety
- new knowledge about hazard assessment
- in case of modification of a site (Art. 10).
Safety Report: The Contents
The requirement for a Safety Report (following
Article 9 and
Annexes II and III)
applies only to upper tier establishments.
An operator must establish
Major-Accident Prevention Policy (MAPP)
The Safety report must include information on the:
- Safety Management System (SMS)
- Internal Emergency Plan
- environment of the establishment
- description of the installation including a listing
of hazardous substances
- risk analysis and prevention methods
- control and limitation of the consequences of an accident
- MAPP and SMS.
The environment and surroundings of the establishment
The description of the natural
environment and the surroundings of the establishment should be
detailed to an extent proportionate to the hazard.
It should demonstrate that the natural environment and surrounding activities
have been sufficiently analyzed by the operator to identify both the
hazards they pose to safe operation and the vulnerability of the area
to the impact of major accidents.
The land use pattern of the areas around the establishment
may be presented as specified in the official land use plan
of the greater area. This kind of information will support
the assignment of the relevant measures against potential effects
of a major accident on neighboring
inhabitants, ecosystems, properties and activities.
Depending on possible accident and their
consequences on the surrounding environemnt,
information should be supplied on:
- inhabited areas (e.g. description
of the areas including population densities);
- establishments receiving the
public, meeting points (regular or occasional);
- sensitive public buildings (schools, hospitals, churches,
police stations, fire stations, telephone switchboards, etc.);
- conservation areas, registered monuments and areas of tourist attraction;
- public utilities, possibly affected by accident consequences, in the
vicinity (electricity, gas, telephone, water, sewers and treatment plant, etc.).
External activities and
developments may both be sources of hazards to the establishment and
also be affected by accidents possibly originating in the
establishment. The safety report should give adequate evidence that
both kind of hazards have been identified. The description should include:
- industrial activities external to the establishment (i.e. nature of -
and spacing with regard to - other establishments, limitations imposed by
other establishments etc.);
- traffic routes and major transportation centers (i.e. roads, railways,
waterways, ports, airports, marshalling yards etc.).
As the natural environment of an establishment may present potential hazard
sources, influence the development of an accident, and be affected by the consequences of an
accident, data will be needed for the description of the relevant
environmental factors. In general this includes
meteorological data such as:
- average and maximum indices on precipitation (rain, snow, hail);
- humidity, fog, frost;
- winds (direction, speed);
- stability classes;
- maximum and minimum recorded temperatures,
geological, hydrological and hydrographic site data such as:
- general geological context;
- type and conditions of the ground/underground;
- seismic data;
- flooding and landslides;
- other site specific natural
hazards (uncontrolled fires, volcanic activities etc.).
Certain data can be omitted; however the reason for their exclusion
should be explained.
The safety report should also present the data concerning the
vulnerability of the natural environment to the impact of major accidents.
The following environmental factors may be relevant:
- surface and ground water;
- water quality and uses;
- shore and marine environment;
- areas of special environmental
interest i.e. natural protected areas, protected fauna and flora
species, sensitive ecosystems, areas of outstanding natural beauty, etc.
Description of the establishment
The safety report should contain an
adequate description of the establishment to enable the control
authorities to have a clear picture of its purpose, location,
activities and intrinsic hazards, services and technical equipment
for safe operation. The extent of the description should be
commensurate to the hazards of the establishments. The description
should also aim at clarifying the interrelations among the different
installations and systems within the establishment, both as far as
the common services and the overall management of the establishment
An introductory section should contain general information on the establishment, i.e.
- purpose of the establishment;
- main activities and production;
- history and development of the activities including the status
of authorizations for operations already agreed and/or granted;
- the number of persons working at the establishments (i.e. internal and
contractors' personnel, specifying working times, visitors, etc.);
- general statements characterizing the establishment with respects to its main hazards
due to relevant substances and processes.
As the organizational aspects are
an integral part of the safety system, the safety report should
describe the structure of the organization, including distribution of
functions and responsibilities relevant to the safe operation of the
establishment and its installations.
The description of the
establishment should contain data on topography and accessibility to
the site at a degree of detail commensurate with the extent of the
hazards and the vulnerability of the surroundings.
The submitted topographic maps
should be of an adequate scale and should include the establishment
and surrounding developments within an area of sufficient extent in
relation with the possible impact of accidents (the scale of the maps
must be indicated, different scaled maps may be necessary when long
distance effects are foreseeable.
On such maps the land use pattern
(i.e. industry, agriculture, urban settlements, environmentally
sensitive locations etc.) and the location of the most important
buildings and infrastructures (i.e. hospitals, schools, other
industrial sites, motorway / railway networks, stations and
marshaling yards, airports, harbors, etc.) must be clearly indicated.
Also on the maps access routes to
the establishment should be clearly indicated as well as the escape
routes from the establishment and other traffic routes significant
for rescue and emergency operations.
Lay out of the establishment
The lay-out of the establishment as
a whole and of its relevant installations should be clearly presented
on adequately scaled plans. Relevant diagrams and/or pictures of
particular sections or equipment should be presented in an
appropriately larger scale.
The lay-out should adequately identify installations and other
activities of the establishment, including:
- main storage facilities;
- process installations;
- location of relevant substances
and their quantities;
- relevant equipment (including vessels and pipes);
- spacing of the installations and their main sections;
- clearance between flammable liquid storage tanks in multi-storage sites, etc.;
- utilities, services and fire water retention;
- escape routes from the installations and across the establishment;
- control rooms and office rooms.
The safety report should give
relevant particulars of types and quantities of dangerous substances
to which the Directive applies at the establishment. The substance
can fall in any of the following categories:
- raw materials;
- intermediate products;
- finished products;
- wastes and auxiliary products;
- products formed as a result of
loss of control of chemical processes.
For the eligible dangerous
substances, data to be provided should include:
type and origin of the substance
(i.e. CAS Number, IUPAC Name, commercial name, empirical formula,
chemical composition, degree of purity if relevant, the most
important contamination, etc.);
physical and chemical properties
(i.e. characteristic temperatures and pressures, concentration and
phases at normal and at the onset of abnormal conditions, equilibrium
data and operation curves if relevant, thermodynamic and transport
properties, data on phase changes, flash points, ignition
temperatures, combustibility of solids, spontaneous-ignition
temperatures, explosion limits, thermal stability data, data on
reactions and their rates, decomposition etc.);
toxicological, flammability and explosive characteristics
(i.e. toxicity, persistence,
irritant effects, long-term effects, synergistic effects, warning
symptoms, effects to the environment, ecotoxic data, etc.).
(e.g. corrosion characteristics in particular relating to the containment' material).
Most information may be found in
safety data-sheets (including maximum permissible working
concentrations, relevant threshold levels, reference to guidelines
for health at the work place, methods and means to detect their
presence in the workplace and/or in the case of loss of containment, etc.).
Hazardous installations and activities
The description of hazardous
activities (processes / storage) shall indicate the purpose and the
basic features of the related operations within the establishment
which are important to safety and may be sources of major risks. This
chemical reactions, physical and biological conversions and transformations;
on-site interim storage;
other storage related activities i.e. loading-unloading, transport
including pipework, etc.;
discharge, retention, re-use
and recycling or disposal of residues and wastes;
discharge and treatment of waste gases;
other process stages, especially treatment and processing operations.
Further details may be required of
the safety relevant sections in accordance with the hazard analysis.
This description should thus include a substantial amount of data
significant from the process engineering and technical safety
standpoint; and cover the safety systems as well. This may include:
- flow charts and Piping and Instrumentation (P&I) diagrams;
- flow patterns and machinery /
equipment needed in the processes; inventories and key dimensions of
the containers and pipes shall be available if relevant;
- process conditions i.e. pressure, temperature, concentration (their safe operation ranges)
and any relevant thermodynamic and transport properties at the
successive steps of the process such as:
- normal and maximum flows, consumption of reactants, production of intermediate
/ end- / by-products (e.g. overall and substance mass balances);
- average or typical quantities normally or accidentally possible to be present,
stored or in process;
- formation conditions of by-products and unplanned accident products;
- conditioning of the final products;
- instrumentation, control / alarm and other safety systems;
- relevant qualitative and quantitative information on energy and mass transport in the
processes i.e. material and energy balances:
- in normal running;
- in start-up or shut-down periods;
- during abnormal operations;
- characteristic process conditions and substance state parameters (i.e. temperature /
pressure / concentration / boil-off fluctuation etc.).
Sufficient information should be
provided in the safety report to permit the competent authority to
assess the adequacy of the controls, but reference can be made to
other documents available to the authority on request.
The safety report should also
provide an outline description of the procedures for safe operation
in all process stages, which includes:
- operations (e.g. normal running, shut-down and start-up,
exceptional operations, emergency and safety procedures);
- specific precautions during storage, transport or handling because
of specific characteristic of the substance (e.g. protection from
vibration or from ambient humidity).
Structural characteristics and
other design data of the storage or process plant handling the
dangerous substances should be supplied in the form of the applied
standards used for their design. A more analytical presentation of
such data may be required for the parts of the establishment in which
major hazards are encountered. The description need not enter into
great detail, but should refer to other documents, available to the
authority on request, covering certain relevant topics such as:
- choice of materials important to safety;
- design of equipment under high
pressure or temperature and their supports;
- stability (static calculations, conditions and load -
bearing capacity of the ground);
- design against external events.
The presentation of the
establishment services should specify important characteristics of
such utilities (i.e. emergency service, primary / secondary etc.).
The description should make clear which services/ supplies are in
common to more or all installations, and which are installation
specific and should include the relevant back-up systems. The
following topics should be addressed if relevant:
- outside electrical, other power sources supply;
- outside supply of water;
- outside supply of other fluids or solids.
Utilities inside the establishment
- production of power internally, fuel supply and storage;
- internal electrical distribution network;
- back-up electrical supply (emergency supply);
- fire-fighting and supply arrangements;
- hot water and other fluid distribution networks;
- communication systems;
- instrument air.
- health and safety (working environment);<
- medical service;
- control centers, emergency refuges, muster points;
- rescue service (emergency);
- service of guarding and controlling the access;
- environmental service;
- equipment inspection service;
- maintenance and repair workshop;
- laboratory, etc.
Waste treatment systems
- sewer network and waste water systems;
- arrangements for controlling
and collecting fire water run-off.
- weather stations;
- services for detecting toxic products in the air;
- services for detecting toxic products in the sewers/discharges to
surface and ground water;
- services for detecting and alarms for fires / explosive atmospheres;
- services for monitoring access and detecting intrusions.