Indicators of Sustainable Development
Author: Adam Mannis, University of Ulster
The word for indicator in Arabic is pointer. Indicators
point to a desirable outcome, to 'which way is up' in the policy arena.
The different levels of data for policy purposes are shown in the Information
Pyramid. At the bottom of the pyramid are data, which unprocessed
are of little value for policy purposes. Once data are processed into statistics
or tables, they can be used in reports or as the basis for ad-hoc evaluations,
but still they are often difficult to understand or use for policy. Indicators
are statistics directed specifically towards policy concerns and which
point towards successful outcomes and conclusions for policy. They are
usually highly aggregated and have easily recognizable purposes. Classic
indicators include the unemployment rate or GDP growth, numbers which are
such powerful and recognizable indicators of performance that they may
cause governments to fall. At the highest level are indices, such
as the consumer price index or human development index, which combine different
indicators into a single number useful for comparison over time and space.
Measuring and monitoring environmental conditions has been a major concern
of Governments and international organisations during the 1990's. Some
of the main international initiatives have included the activities of UNSTAT/UNEP,
including the the State of the World Environment and Environmental Data
Report series (1994), the development of an Earthwatch database and the
beginnings of the development of a series of environmental indicators.
Other bodies such as OECD and WHO have been involved in the development
of a conceptual framework.
2.0 Recently Developed Indicators
Growing realization of the failings of the conventional GNP and income
as the primary indicators of economic progress has led to the development
of alternative yardsticks. Two interesting recent efforts are the Human
Development Index (HDI) devised by the United Nations Development Programme
and the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW) developed by economist
Herman Daly and theologian John Cobb. A third indicator, per capita grain
consumption, is a useful measure of changes in well-being in low-income
countries, where the data needed to calculate the more sophisticated indices
are typically not available on an annual basis.
The Human Development Index, measured on a scale of 0 to 1, is an aggregate
of three indicators: longevity, knowledge, and the command over resources
needed for a decent life. For longevity, the UN team uses life expectancy
at birth. For knowledge, they use adult literacy and mean years of schooling.
And for the command over resources, they use gross domestic product (GDP)
per person after adjusting it for purchasing power. Because these indicators
are national averages, they do not deal directly with inequalities in wealth
distribution, but by including longevity and literacy they do reflect indirectly
the distribution of resources. A high average life expectancy, for example,
indicates broad access to health care and adequate supplies of food and
safe drinking water.
A comparison of countries ranked by both per capita gross domestic product
(adjusted for purchasing power) and HDI reveals some wide disparities.
Costa Rica ranks 40th in the HDI, while South Africa, with an adjusted
per capita GDP 27 percent higher than Costa Rica's, comes in at number
57. Despite their lower average purchasing power, Costa Ricans boast an
adult literacy rate of 92 percent, compared with only 85 percent in South
Africa, and at birth can expect to live 13 years longer than a newly born
South African. Argentina, Chile, Poland, and Yugoslavia are among the other
countries exhibiting high human development with comparatively modest per
The HDI is still evolving; indeed, the country rankings published in
1991 differ markedly in some cases from those in 1990, the first year of
the index, because of refinements made by the UN team. As more data become
available, the HDI will begin to capture other determinants of human development
as well. For example, enough information already exists in 30 countries
to include sex inequalities in the HDI. When this is done, top-ranked Japan
drops to number 17, while Finland, where women have rights and economic
opportunities comparable to men's, moves up from 13 to number 1. Similarly,
an HDI sensitive to the distribution of income has been calculated for
53 countries that could provide the needed data; again, the rankings change
when this important factor is included.
While the HDI represents a distinct improvement over income figures
as a measure of human well-being, it so far says nothing about environmental
degradation. As a result, the HDI can rise through gains in literacy, life
expectancy, or purchasing power that are financed by the depletion of natural
resources, setting the stage for a longer term deterioration in living
The Daly-Cobb Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare, on the other hand,
is a more comprehensive indicator of well-being, taking into account not
only average consumption but also distribution and environmental degradation.
To date, it has only been calculated for the United States. After adjusting
the consumption component of the index for distributional inequality, the
authors factor in several environmental measures, such as depletion of
nonrenewable resources, loss of farmland from soil erosion and urbanisation,
loss of wetlands, and the cost of air and water pollution. They also incorporate
what they call "long-term environmental damage", a figure that
attempts to take into account such large-scale changes as the effects of
global warming and of damage to the ozone layer.
Applying this comprehensive measure shows a rise in welfare per person
in the United States of some 42 percent between 1950 and 1976. But after
that the ISEW began to decline, falling by just over 12 percent by 1988,
the last year for which it was calculated. Simply put, about 15 years ago
the net benefits associated with economic growth in the United States fell
below the growth of population, leading to a decline in individual welfare.
The principal weakness of the ISEW is its dependence on information
that is available in only a handful of nations. For example, few developing
countries have comprehensive data on the extent of air and water pollution,
not to mention measurements of year-to-year changes. The same drawback
applies to the HDI, since life expectancy data depend heavily on infant
mortality information that, astonishing as it may seem, is collected at
best once a decade in most of the Third World.
Per capita grain consumption, however, is a useful measure of well-being
in low-income countries that can be tracked on a yearly basis. This indicator
captures the satisfaction of a basic human need, since people cannot survive
if annual grain consumption falls much below 180 kilograms (about 1 pound
a day) for an extended period. It is also less vulnerable to distortion
by inequities of income and wealth. While the distribution of wealth between
the richest and poorest one fifth of a population can be as great as 20
to 1, as indeed it is in Algeria, Brazil, and Mexico, per capita consumption
of grain by these same groups will not vary by more than 4 to 1.
One drawback with this indicator is that it says nothing about how much
of the grain consumed was produced unsustainably - by eroding soils, depleting
water supplies, and the like. Another is that at some point, higher per
capita grain consumption starts to imply a deterioration in human well-being
rather than an improvement. Toward the top end of the scale people are
consuming fat-rich livestock products known to increase heart disease and
colon, breast, and other types of cancer, leading to an overall reduction
in life expectancy. Per capita grain consumption is therefore best used
as an indicator of well-being only in poorer countries.
3.0 Computing the Human Development Index
The HDI is based on three indicators: longevity, as measured by life
expectancy at birth; educational attainment, as measured by a combination
of adult literacy (two-thirds weight) and combined primary, secondary and
tertiary enrolment ratios (one-third weight): and standard of living as
measured by real GDP per capita (PPP$).
For the construction of the index, fixed minimum and maximum values have
been established for each of these indicators:
- Life expectancy at birth:
- 20 years and 85 years
- Adult literacy:
- 0% and 100%
- Combined enrolment ratio:
- 0% and 100%
- Real GDP per capita (PPP$):
- PPP$100 and PPP$10,000
For any component of the HDI, individual indices can be computed according
to the general formula:
Actual x1 value - minimum x1 value
Index = Maximum x1 value - maximum x1 value
If for example, the life expectancy at birth in a country is 65 years,
the index of life expectancy for this country would be:
65 - 25 40
Life expectancy index = 85 - 25 = 60 0.667
The construction of the income index is a little more complex. The average
world income of PPP$5.711 is taken as the threshold level (y*),
and any income above this level is discounted using the following formulation
based on Atkinson's formula for the utility of income:
W(y) = y* for 0 < y < y*
= y* + 2[(y . y*)1/2] for y*
< y < 2y*
= y* + 2 (y*1/2) + 3 [(y . 2y*)1/3]
for 2y* < y < 3y*
To calculate the discounted value of the maximum income of PPP$40.000,
the following form of Atkinson's formula is used:
W(y) = y* + 2(y*1/3) + 3(y*1/3) + 4(y*1/4)
+ 6(y*1/6) + 7(t*1/7) + 8[(40,000 . 7y*)1/8]
This is because PPP$40,000 is between 7y* and 8y*.
With the above formulation, the discounted value of the maximum income
of PPP$540,000 is PPP$6,040.
The construction of the HDI is illustrated with two examples - Greece,
an industrial country and Gabon, a developing country:
Life expectancy (years)
Adult literacy (% )
Combined enrolment ratio (%)
Real GDP per capita (PPP$)
Life expectancy index:
77.7 - 25 52.7
Greece = 85 - 25 = 60 = 0.878
53.7 - 25 28.7
Gabon = 85 - 25 = 60 = 0.478
Adult literacy index:
93.8 - 0 93.8
Greece = 100 - 0 = 100 = 0.938
Gabon = 100 - 0 = 100 = 0.603
Combined primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratio index
18 - 0
Greece = 100 - 0 = 0.780
47 - 0
Gabon = 100 - 0 = 0.470
Educational attainment index
Greece = [2(0.938) + 1(0.780)] ¸ 3 = 0.885
Gabon = [2(0.603) + 1(0.470)] ¸ 3 = 0.558
Adjusted real GDP per capital (PPP$) index Greece's real GDP per capital
at PPP$8,950, is above but less than twice the threshold. thus, the adjusted
real GDP per capita for Greece would be PPP$5,825 because 5,825 = [5,711
+ 2(8.950 - 5,711)1/2]
Gabon's real GDP per capita, at PPP$3,861, is less than the threshold,
so it needs no adjustment.
The adjusted real GDP per capita (PPP$) index for Greece and Gabon would
5,825 - 100 5,725
Greece = 6,040 - 100 = 5,940 = 0.964
3,861 - 100 3,761
Gabon = 6,040 - 100 = 5,940 = 0.633
Human development index
The HDI is a simple average of the life expectancy index, educational attainment
index and the adjusted real GDP per capita (PPP$) index. It is calculated
by dividing the sum of these three indices by 3. The HDI values for Greece
and Gabon are calculated using this formula:
Life expectancy index
Educational attainment index
Adjusted real GDP per capita (PPP$) index
4.0 Monitoring Progress on Sustainable Development: Sustainable Development
Refer to http://www.undp.org/undp/devwatch/indicatr.htm
The document below is an EXTRACT from a Report of the Department for
Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DPCSD), United Nations
Division for Sustainable Development.
Chapter 40 of Agenda 21 calls for the development of indicators for
sustainable development. In particular, it requests countries at the national
level, and international governmental and non-governmental organisations
at the international level to develop the concept of indicators of sustainable
development in order to identify such indicators.
This issue was raised during the first two sessions of the Commission on
Sustainable Development (CSD), at which time a large number of countries
emphasized the urgent need for these indicators. Other countries expressed
some concern and insisted that indicators be developed in close contact
with Governments. Pursuant to the multi-year programme of work adopted
by the Commission at its first session, the progress achieved on developing
these indicators, in the context of Chapter 40 of Agenda 21, will be discussed
by the Commission during its third session.
The objective of this work programme is primarily to make the indicators
for sustainable development accessible to decision-makers at the national
level by defining them elucidating their methodologies and providing training
and other capacity-building activities, as relevant. Indicators, as used
in national policies, may also be used in the national reports to the CSD
and other intergovernmental bodies.
4.2 Indicators for Sustainable Development
An increasing number of organisations has responded to the challenge
of Agenda 21 to develop indicators for sustainable development in the short-term.
Some of this work is being undertaken around specific issues, such as health
and the environment, or human settlements; others are attempting to define
a full set of indicators. Such redundancy and overlap has been extremely
valuable, since it has generated more creative thinking and a shared sense
of purpose. The role of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
development, as Task Manager of this issue, is now to coordinate the fruits
of this work, to underline areas of convergence, and to bring together
the many actors in a broad, cooperative programme that may directly serve
the needs of the Commission on Sustainable Development, as well as all
Member States. Much further work, primarily by the scientific community,
is needed in order to understand and explicate these interlinkages.
Economic indicators have ben used for many years at national, regional
and international levels. Social indicators have also been developed over
the past years and are widely used all over the world. It is feasible to
select among the economic and social indicators those which capture the
specific issues most relevant to sustainable development. Institutional
indicators related to Agenda 21 or sustainable development are largely
undeveloped and are at this stage limited to so-called yes/no indicators.
Environmental indicators have been developed more recently. For some of
the environmental aspects, data will not be easily available. Recent initiatives
include the environment statistics programme of the United Nations Statistical
Commission, environmental indicators being developed by UNEP, the UN system-wide
Earthwatch, the OECD, various relevant international legal instruments,
and so forth.
Based on relevant indicators that are available, it is proposed that the
Commission on Sustainable Development agree that work will proceed
on the basis of a core set of indicators, as contained in Table 1 (see
Indicator Template on main menu), with the understanding that this
is a flexible, working set of indicators that will be fine-tuned to the
needs of countries after further methodological work, testing and training.
It is further proposed that the Commission approve the work programme on
indicators for sustainable development, including the following elements:
(1) preparation of methodology sheets for distribution to governments;
(2) testing of the indicators, on a voluntary basis, in three to four countries
and their subsequent adaptation, as needed; (3) organisation of national
and regional training workshops and other capacity-building activities,
upon request; and (4) evaluation and readjustment of the indicators on
the basis of experience and further research as national and international
levels, including in the context of international legal instruments.
It is also proposed that the Commission of Sustainable Development encourage
continued cooperation with the work underway on environment indicators
under the auspices of the United Nations Statistical Commission.
4.3 Highly Aggregated Indicators
Concurrently, work may proceed with developing highly aggregated indicators
for sustainable development. Although this represents a longer-term effort,
it is important for three reasons: it explores the relationship among the
variable, which lies at the heart of the linkages intrinsic to sustainable
development; it concentrates information collection and analysis and facilitates
presentation to decision-makers; and, it may serve as the basis of an early
warning systems, if desired.
A project is now being undertaken by the Scientific Committee on Problems
of the Environment (SCOPE), in cooperation with UNEP, aiming at developing
highly aggregated indicators for sustainable development. This initiative
is currently focusing on the environmental aspects of sustainability although
the project could be broadened to focus on other aspects of sustainable
development, as well.
4.4 A Core Set of Indicators for Sustainable Development:
A core set of indicators, as contained in Table 1 (see Indicator
Template on main menu) is proposed for monitoring progress at a national
level towards sustainable development through the implementation of Agenda
21. It is fully recognised that there is need for flexibility as the conditions,
activities and priorities for sustainable development differ from country
to country. At same time, the need for international comparability calls
for the development of standardised concepts, definitions and classifications
As mentioned, regional workshops and capacity-building programmes are needed
in order to facilitate the use of the core set of indicators at a national
level. Testing of the indicators in three to four countries could be used
to gain experience and further develop the indicators, and evaluation of
the use of the indicators at the national level, and national and international
developments, could be used to adjust the core set of indicators if necessary.
The indicators in the core set are presented in a Driving Force - State
- Response (DSR) framework. The DSR framework is adopted from the widely
agreed framework for environmental indicators, the Pressure - State - Response
framework. The concept of "pressure" has been replaced by that
of "Driving Forces", in order to accommodate more accurately
the addition of economic, social and institutional indicators. "Driving
force" indicators indicate human activities, processes and patterns
that impact on sustainable development, "state" indicators indicate
the "state" of sustainable development and "response"
indicators indicate policy options and other responses to the changes in
the "state" of sustainable development.
In the core set, the indicators are grouped in categories covering the
economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of sustainable
development. The indicators are related to chapters of Agenda 21. The coverage
of the four aspects of sustainable development and of all the chapters
of Agenda 21 ensures that the most significant aspects of sustainable development
are monitored by the indicators.
The indicators in the proposed framework have been developed in accordance
with the following criteria:
(a) primarily national in scale or scope (countries may also wish to use
indicators at state and provincial levels);
(b) relevant to the main objective of assessing progress towards sustainable
(c) understandable in that they are clear, simple, and unambiguous;
(d) realizable within the capacities of national governments, given their
logistic, time, technical and other constraints;
(e) conceptually well founded;
(f) limited in number, remaining open-ended and adaptable to future developments;
(g) broad in coverage of Agenda 21 and all aspects of sustainable development;
(h) representative of an international consensus, to the extent possible;
(i) dependent on data which are readily available or available at reasonable
cost/benefit ratio, adequately documented, of known quality and updated
at regular intervals.
As noted, the core set of indicators may change and new indicators may
be included, for example, in the context of international legal agreements,
or as national level experience is gained. Furthermore, there are some
potentially important indicators which require further methodological work
before they can be used. This is especially the case for various ecosystem
(geo-referenced) indicators, including biodiversity and other habitat indicators,
and for the following issues, for which indicators are not included in
the core set at this stage:
- transfer of technology (driving force, state and response indicators);
- science (driving force, state and response indicators);
- capacity-building (driving force, state and response indicators);
- decision-making structures (driving force indicators);
- strengthening of "traditional information" (driving force and
- role of major groups (driving force and response indicators);
- oceans, all kinds of seas and coastal areas (response indicators);
- desertification and drought (response indicators);
- sustainable mountain development (driving force, state and response indicators);
- biotechnology (driving force, state and response indicators); and,
- toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes (response indicators).
Research and experimentation with advanced economic, social and institutional
indicators that might more effectively measure progress toward sustainable
development and continued research and experimentation with environmental
indicators appropriate for measuring progress toward sustainable development
should be endorsed. There may also be need for subsets and other, often
more comprehensive, sets of indicators for other purposes.
Table 1: Core Set of Indicators for Sustainable Development
||Chapters of Agenda 21
||Driving Force Indicators
||Chapter 2: International cooperation
Real GDP per capita o
growth rate (%) o
Exports of goods and services (US$) o
Imports of goods and services (US$)
GDP per capita (US$) o
EDP per capita/ environmentally adjusted value added (US$) o
Share of manufacturing valued added in GDP (%) o
Export concentration ratio (%)
Investment share in GDP (%)
||Chapter 4: Consumption and production patterns
Depletion of mineral resources (% of proven reserves) o
Annual energy consumption per capita (J)
Proven mineral reserves (t) o
Proven energy reserves (oil equivalents) o
Lifetime of proven energy reserves (years)
Ratio of consumption of renewable sources over non-renewable resources
||Chapter 33: Financial resources and mechanisms
Total ODA given or received as percentage of GDP (%)
Environment protection expenditure as % of GDP o
Environment taxes and subsidies as % of government revenue o
Amount of new or additional funding for sustainable development given/received
since 1992 (US$) o
Programme of integrated environment and economic accounting (yes/no)
||Chapter 34: Transfer of technology
||Chapter 3: Poverty
Unemployment rate (%)
Population living in absolute poverty (no and %)
||Chapter 5: Demographic dynamics and sustainability
Total fertility rate o
Population growth rate (%) o
Population density (persons/km²) o
Net migration rate (persons/year)
||Chapter 36: Promoting education, public awareness
and training (including gender issues)
Adult literacy rate (%) o
Primary school enrolment ratio (%) o
Secondary school enrolment ratio (%) o
Population reaching grade 5 of primary education (%) o
Expected years of schooling
% of GDP spent on education o
Females per 100 males in secondary school (no) o
percentage of women in civil service (%) o
Women per 100 men in the labour force (%)
||Chapter 6 (2): Protecting and promoting human
% of people without access to safe drinking water o
Pesticide residue in fish (mg/kg) o
% of urban population exposed to concentrations of SO2, particulates,
ozone, CO and Pb o
Calorie supply per capita (calories/day) o
Concentration of coliforms and pesticides in drinking water (mg/1)
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 births) o
Life expectancy at birth (years) o
Incidence of environmentally related diseases (no)
||% GDP spent on health
||CG Chapter 7 (3): Human settlements (including
traffic and transport)
Rate of growth of urban population (%) o
Motor vehicles in use (no) o
Number of megacities (10 mill. or more)
% of population in urban areas o
Area and population of marginal settlements (km², no) o
Cost/number of injuries and fatalities related to natural diasters 4 o
Floor area per person (m²) o
% of population with sanitary services
Expenditure on low-cost housing (US$) o
Expenditure on public transportation (US$) o
Infrastructure expenditures per capita (US$)
||Chapter 35: Science
||Chapter 37: Capacity-building
||Chapter 8, 38, 39, 40: Decision-making structures
Mandated EIA (yes/no) o
Programmes for national environmental statistics and indicators for sustainable
development (yes/no) o
Sustainable development strategies (yes/no) o
National councils for sustainable development (yes/no) o
Main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants (no)
Ratification of international agreements related to sustainable development
||Strengthening of "traditional information"
(part of ch. 40)
Representatives of indigenous people in national councils for sustainable
development (yes/no) o
Existence of database for traditional knowledge information (yes/no)
||Chapter 23-32: Role of major groups
Representatives of major groups in national councils for sustainable development
||Chapter 18: Freshwater resources
Annual withdrawals of ground and surface water as % of available water
municipal discharges into freshwater bodies (t/m3) o
Household consumption of water per capita (m3)
Groundwater reserves (m3) o
Concentration of lead, cadmium, mercury and pesticides in freshwater bodies
Concentration of faecal coliform in freshwater bodies (no/100 ml) o
Acidification of freshwater bodies (pH value) o
BOD and COD in water bodies (mg/l)
Waste water treatment (% of population served, total and by type of treatment)
||Chapter 17 (5): Protection of the oceans, all
kinds of seas and coastal areas
Catches of marine species (t)
Deviation in stock of marine species from maximum sustained yield (MSY)
level (%) o
Ratio between MSY abundance and actual average abundance (%) o
Loading of N and P in coastal waters (t) o
||Chapter 10: Planning and management of land
Land use change (km²)
Area affected by soil erosion (km²)/erosion index
Protected area as % of total land area
||Chapter 12: Combatting desertification and
Fuelwood consumption per capita (m3) o
Livestock per km² of arid and semi-arid lands
Land affected by desertification (km²)/ desertification index
||Chapter 13: Sustainable mountain development
||Chapter 14: Promoting sustainable agriculture
and rural development
Use of fertilizers (t/km²) o
Use of agricultural pesticides (t/km²) o
Arable land per capita (ha/capita)
Area affected by salinisation and waterlogging (km²)
Cost of extension services provided (US$) o
Area of land reclaimed (km²)
|Other natural resources
||Chapter 11: Combatting deforestation (7)
Deforestation rate (km²/annum) o
Annual roundwood production (m³)
Change in biomass (%) o
Timber stocks (m³) o
Forest area (km²)
Reforestation rate (km²/annum)
||Chapter 15: Conservation of biological diversity
Rate of extinction of protected species (%)
Threatened, extinct species (no)
Protected area as % of total land area
||Chapter 16: Biotechnology
||Chapter 9: Protection of the atmosphere
Emissions of CO2 (t) o
Emissions of SOx and NOx (t) o
Production of ozone destroying substances (t)
||Ambient concentrations of SO2, CO2,
NOx and O3 in urban area (ppm)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement (US$) o
Reduction in the consumption of ozone destroying substances (% per year)
in the emissions of CO2, SOx and NOx (%
||Chapter 21: Solid wastes and sewage-related
Waste disposed (t) o
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$) o
Waste recycling rates (%) o
Municipal waste disposal (t/capita) o
Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)
||Chapter 19, 20, 22: Toxic chemicals and hazardous
Generation of hazardous waste (t)
Area of land contaminated by toxic waste (km²)
Notes to Table 1
1. Production and consumption patterns are also reflected in particular
by the following indicators:
o Share of manufacturing value added in GDP
o Export concentration ratio (under economic)
o Ratio of consumption of renewable resources
over non-renewable resources
o Motor vehicles in use (under social)
o Household consumption of water per capita
(under environmental, water)
o Fuelwood consumption per capita (under
o Production of ozone destroying substances
(under environmental, atmosphere)
o Reduction in the consumption of ozone destroying
substances (under environmental atmosphere)
2. Consultations with WHO are ongoing.
3. Consultations with HABITAT are ongoing.
4. Following the SIDS Programme of Action, indicators of vulnerability
are to be developed.
5. Consultations with FAO are ongoing.
6. Consultations with FAO are ongoing for these chapters (10, 12, 13, 14).
7. Consultations with FAO are ongoing.
5.0 Environmental Indicators
The pressure-state-response framework, follows a cause-effect-social
response logic. It was developed by the OECD from earlier work by the Canadian
government. Increasingly widely accepted and internationally adaopted,
it can be applied at a national level, at sectoral levels, at the levels
of an industrial firm, or at the community level.
Pressure indicators measure policy effectiveness more directly -- whether
emissions increase or decrease, whether forest depletion waxes or wanes,
and whwether human exposure to hazardous conditions grows or shrinks. Accountability
for the pressures each country exerts on the environment is claer -- as
in the case of the amount of ozone-degrading gases emitted. These indicators
are not only descriptive. They can also provide direct feedback on whether
policies meet stated goals because they are based on measures or model-based
estimates of actual behaviour. Pressure indicators are thus particularly
useful in formulating policy targets and in evaluating policy performance.
They can also be used prospectively to evaluate environmental impacts of
socioeconomic scenarios or proposed policy measures.
Response indicators measure progress toward regulatory compliance or other
governmental efforts, but don't directly tell what is happening to the
environment. As a practical matter, data to construct indicators is usually
most available for pressure indicators and sparsest for response indicators.
Core lists of environmental issues -- and of relevant indicators -- have
been and are being developed by several organisations, building on the
OECD's initial work. Such indicators can be organised within the pressure-state-response
framework into a matrix of indicators.
Table 2 is adapted from such a matrix under consideration by UNEP (World
Resources Institute, 1995).
Table 3 shows a similar matrix adapted from one being considered by the
World Bank (World Resources Institute, 1995).
Table 4 is a pressure-state-response model for indicators of sustainability
in land and natural resources use (Winograd, 1993)
World Resources Institute (1995) "Environmental Indicators: A Systematic
Approach to Measuring & Reporting on Environmental Policy Performance
in the Context of Sustainable Development", World Resources Institute,
Winograd, M (1993) "Environmental Indicators for Latin America
and the Caribbean: Towards Land Use Sustainability", Organisation
of American States, and World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
Table 2: Matrix of Environmental Indicators under consideration by UNEP
(World Resources Institute, 1995)
||Energy intensity; env measures
||(Halocarbon) emissions; production
||(Chlorine) concentrations; O3 column
||Protcol sign; CFC recovery; Fund contrib'n
||(N,P water, soil) emissions
||Investments; sign agreements
||(SOx, NOx, SOx) emissions
||(VOC, NOx, SOx) concentrations
||Recovery hazardous waste; investments/costs
||(POC, heavy metal) emissions
||(POC, heavy metal) concentrations
||Recovery hazardous waste; investments/costs
|Urban Env Quality
||(VOC, NOx, SOx) emissions
||(VOC, NOx, SOx) concentrations
||Expenditures; transp policy
||Land conversion; land fragmentation
||Species abundance comp to virgin area
||Waste generation mun'pal, ind agric
||Collection rate; recycling investments/cost
||Demand/use intensity resid/ind/agric
||Demand/supply ratio; quality
||Expenditures; water pricing; savings policy
||Area degr frest; use/sustain growth ratio
||Protected area forest, sustain logging
||Area degr forest; use/sustain growth ratio
||Protected area forest, sustain logging
||Land use changes
||Top soil loss
||Emissions; oil spills; depositions
||Coastal zone management; ocean protection
Table 3: Matrix of Environmental Indicators under consideration by The
(World Resources Institute, 1995)
|I Source Indicators 1.
Agriculture a Land Quality b Other 2. Forest 3. Marine Resources 4. Water
5. Subsoil Assets a. Fossil Fuels b. Metals & Minerals
||Value Added/Gross Output Human-Induced Soil
Degrad Land Use Changes, Inputs for EDP Contaminants, Demand for Fish as
Food Intensity of Use Extraction Rate(s) Extraction Rate(s) Extraction
||Cropland as % of wealth Climatic Classes &
Soil constraints Area, volumes, distribution; value of forest Stock of
Marine Species Accessibility to Pop. (weighted % of total) Subsoil assets
% wealth Proven Reserves Proven Reserves
||Rural/Urab Terms of Trade In/Output ratio,
main users; recyc rates % Coverage of Int'l Protocols/Conv. Water efficiency
measures Material balances/NNP Reverse Energy Subsidies In/Output ratio,
main uers; recyc rates
|II Sink or Pollution Indicators 1.
Climate Change a. Greenhouse Gases b. Stratospheric Ozone 2. Acidification
3. Eutrophication 4. Toxification
||Emissions of CO2 Apparent Consumption
of CFCs Emissions of SOx, NOx Use of Phosphates(P),
Nitrates(N) Generation of hazardous waste/oad
||Atmosph. Concentr. of Greenhouse Gases Atmosph.
Concentr. of CFCs Concentr, of pH, SOx NOx in precipitation
Biological Oxygen Demand, P, N in rivers Concentr. oflead, cadmium, etc.
||Energy Efficiency of NNP % Coverage of Int'l
Protocols/Conv. Expenditures on Pollution Abatement % Pop. w/waste treatment
% Petrol unleaded
|III Life Support Indicators 1.
Biodiversity 2. Oceans 3. Special Lands (eg wetland)
||Land Use Changes Threatened, Extinct species
||Protected Areas as % Threatened
|IV Human Impact Indicators 1.
Health a. Water Quality b. Air Quality c. Occupat'l Exposures etc 2. Food
Security & Quality 3. Housing/Urban 4. Waste 5. Natural Disaster
||Burden of Disease (DALYs/persons) Energy Demand
Population Density (persons/km2) Generation of industrial, municipal
||Life Expectancy at birth Dissolved Oxygen,
faecal coliform Concentr. of particulates, SO2 etc Accumulation
||% NNP spent of Health, vaccination Access to
safe water % NNP spent on Housing Exp. on collect. & treatmt., recyc.
Table 4: Pressure-State-Response Model for
Indicators of Sustainability in Land and Natural Resource Use (Winograd,1993)
||Level and Scale
||Population Growth Density on Land Population
||Measure of increase Ratio with Surface Area
||Total Population Density % Urban and Rural
||Country, Bioregion, Region, Local Country,
Bioregion, Region, Local Country, Bioregion, Region
|Develop't Socio- economics
||Production Increase Production Increase Purchasing
Power Employment External Debt International Prices Social Welfare Health
Conditions Conditions of Nutrition Condition of Education State of the
||Measure of Increase Ratio with Population Purchasing
Power Parity Level of Employment External Debt-Export Ratio Exports-Imports
Price Ratio Level of Human Development Life and Mortality Expectancy Malnutrition
and Calorie Intake Male and Female Literacy Population-Poverty Ratio
||Annual Growth of GDP GDP per capita Real GNP
per capita % of Unemployment External Debt and Debt Service as % of Exports
Terms of Trade Ratio Index of Human Dev Life Expectancy and Infant Mortality
Rate % of Malnourished Children and Daily Chronic Intake % of Literacy
% of Incidence of Poverty
||Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region
Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country,
Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region
|Agriculture and Food
||Food Production Food Production Food Consumption
Agricultural Inputs Land Availability Land Concentration Production Orientation
Soil Condition Condition of Hillside Soil Condition of Hillside Soils Production
Potential Land Availability Land Availability Load Capacity Production
Orientation Orientation of Production
||Measure of Increase Measure of Increase Measure
in Calorie Intake Growth in Use of Inputs Agricultural Land and Pop Inequality
of Land Distribution Grain Production and Destination Ratio Ratio with
Hillside Lands Soil Limitations Soil Potential Agricultural Land, Population,
and Level of Inputs Ratio Agricultural Land and Potential Population Ratio
Potential and Current Agricultural Land Ratio Population Potential and
Level of Inputs Ratio Production of Drugs and Employment Ratio Changes
in Food Consumption
||Change in Production and Yield Index of Food
Production Calories per capita and % Change in Calorie Supply Annual Fertilizer
and Pesticide Use Agricultural Land per capita GINI Coefficient % of Grain
consumed by livestock % of Agricultural Lands % of Soil with Limitations
Potential Agricultural Land Necessary Agricultural Land Agricultural Land
per capita Potential for Land Expansion Ratio of Support Capacity Production
of Drugs Food Sources
||Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region,
Local Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country,
Region Country, Region Country, Bioregion, Region Country, Region Country,
Region Country, Region Country, Bioregion, Region Country, Bioregion, Region
Country, Bioregion, Region Country, Local
|Energy and Materials
||Production of Bioenergy Bioenergy Production
Production Potential Hydroelect Resources Hydroelect Production Hydroelect
Potential Hydroelect Prod Materials consumption
||Firewood and Coal Prod-Pop Ratio Production
and Require ratio Production of Bienergy Generation Capacity Production
and Capacity Ratio Generation Potential Generation and Surface Area Ratio
Consumption and Population to Surface Area Ratio
||Firewood and Coal per capita Traditional Fuels
as a % of Total Requirements Bioenergetic Potential Installed Hydroelect
Cap % of the Capacity Gen Exploitable Hydroelct Pot Kilowatts Generated
per flooded hectare Per capita materials consumption
||Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region
Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region
|Ecosystems and Land Use
||Change in Primary Productivity Change in Land
Use Employment and production Land Production Impact of Land Use Impact
of Land Use
||Measurement of Primary Production Measurement
of the Change in Patterns of Use Relationship Among Jobs and Surface Area,
People Fed Economic Production Measure of Emissions and Changes in Use
Intensity Urban and Rural Emissions Relationship
||Current and Natural Primary Production % Change
Jobs per hectare Annual Production and Value Net Emissions, Species Used
and Years of Use Equivalent People Using Fossil Fuels
||Bioregion, Region Country, Bioregion, Region,
Local Country, Bioregion, Local Country, Bioregion, Local Country, Bioregion,
Local Country, Bioregion, Local
|Forests and Pastures
||Cover of Vegetation Decrease of Forests Earnings
from Forests Change in Forest Surface Area Change in Forest Surface Area
Production of Forests Forest Potential Forest Potential Cover of Vegetation
Livestock Population Load Capacity Production of Pastures Economic Value
||Type of Forest Deforestation of Dense and Open
Forest Reforestation in Dense and Open Forest Annual Deforestation Ratio
of Deforestation and Reforestation Relationship of Production and Population
Ratio of Wood Reserves and Population Ratio of Production and Reserves
Change in Surface Area of Pastures Measurement of Increase Measurement
of Increase Measurement of Increase in Meat Production Ratio of Surface
Area and Export Value
||Surface Area of Dense and Open Forests Annual
Deforestation Annual Reforestation Annual Deforestation Rate Ratio of Deforestation
and Reforestation Wood Production per capita Wood Reserves per capita and
by hectare Ratio of Production /Reserves % Change in Pastures % Change
in Livestock Index of Load Capacity % Change in Meat Prod Dollars per hectare
||Country, Bioregion, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg
Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country,
Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg,
Reg Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Local
||Decrease in No Species Decrease in No Species
Decrease in No Species System of Protect Areas Use of Biodiversity Risk
of Species Disapp Investment in Protection Economic Value Economic Value
||Ratio of Threatened Species to Total "
" " " Ratio of Threatened Species to Surface Area Ratio
of Protected Areas to Total Ratio of Used Species to Total Relationship
of Investment and Surface Area Relationship of Investment and Surface Area
Economic Production Profitability of Investment
||% Threatened Animal Spe % Threatened Animal
Spe Threatened Plants per 1000 km % of Protected Areas Index of Vegetation
Use Index of Species Disappearance Risk Dollars per 1000 hectares Protected
Value of Prod Current Net Value
||Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region
Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Bioreg, Local Country, Bioreg, Local Country,
Region Country, Local Country, Local
|Atmosphere and Climate
||Emissions of Greenhouse Gasses Emissions of
Greenhouse Gases Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Emissions of Greenhouse
||Increase in Emission Through Change in Land
Use Increase in Total Emissions Relationship of Activities and Change in
Land Use Ratio of Current and Accumulated Emissions Incidence of Natural
||Emissions of CO Es Carbon Total and per capita
Emissions of CO Es Carbon Total per capita and per GNP Emissions of CO
Eq Carbon by Activity Current and Accumulated Emissions of CO per cap Population,
Affected and Economic Losses
||Country, Bioreg, Reg Country, Region Bioregion,
Region Country, Region Country, Region
|Information and participation
||Environmental information Societal Participation
||Countries with Environmental Profiles and Inventories
Possibility of Participation in Decisions Importance of Environment
||No of Environmental Profiles and Inventories
No of NGOs per Area of Activity Perception of Environmental Problems
||Country, Region Country, Region Country, Region
|Treaties and Agreements
||Environmental Policy Sources of Financing for
||Participation in Treaties and Agreements Debt-for-Nature
||Signing and Ratification of International Treaties
Funds Generated for Conservation
||Country, Region Country, Region, Local
|Land Use Projections
||Land Use Potential Land Need Current and Potential
Use Vegetation Land Use Consequences of Land Use Cost and Investment for
Development Potential Land Use
||Ratio of Potential Productive Land to Population
Ratio of Needed Agricultural Land to Level of Inputs Ratio of Current to
Potential Productive Land Ratio of Land Use to Pop Additions to Greenhouse
Gases Ratio of Necessary Surface Area and Cost of Land Use Ratio of Actual
to Potential Use Cost
||Potential Productive Land per capita Agricultural
Land Necessary in 2030 Index of Land Use Deforestation Rate and Ratio of
Re/Deforestation Agricultural Land and Forests per capita Net, total, and
per capita Additions Net, Total, and per capita additions Average Annual
invest Cost and Benefit of Rehabilitation
||Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion,
Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion,
Region Bioregion, Region Bioregion, Local
||Potential for Mitigating the Consequences of
||Ratio of Potential Surface Area to Absorption
||Carbon Absorption through Reforestation and
6.0 Indicator Sources
Social Indicators of Development contains data for assessing
human welfare to provide a picture of the social effects of economic development.
Data are presented for more than 170 economies. Up to 94 indicators are
reported for each country including: size, growth, and structure of population;
determinants of population growth; education and illiteracy; natural resources;
and transport and communication. The data set is available at the following
Trends in Developing Economies (TIDE) provides brief reports on
most of the World Bank's borrowing countries. This compendium of individual
country economic trends complements the World Bank's World Development
Report. The data set is available at the following URL:
Habitat II Indicators (refer to Table 5) lists a framework of indicators
for analysing Urban and Human Settlement Conditions, developed for the
United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (known as Habitat II), which
was held in Istanbul in June 1996.
Table 5: Habitat II Indicators for Urban & Human Settlements
MODULE O :- BACKGROUND DATA
- Indicator DA1: Birth and death rates
- Crude birth and death rates are defined as births and deaths per 1000
- Indicator DA2: Migration rates
- Net migration : (A) within country, (b) overseas, (c) total
- Indicator DA3: Household type
- Number of households with (a) more than one adult and children, (b)
single parent households, (c) more than one adult, no children, (d) one
- Indicator DA4: Household expenditure
- Proportion (%) of average household income spent on: (a) food, (b)
housing, (c) travel, (d) other
- Indicator DA5: Dwelling type
- Number of: (a) detached dwellings, (b) medium density dwellings, (c)
apartments, (d) total
MODULE 1 :- SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
- Indicator A1: Illiteracy of poor
- Defined as the percentage of poor aged 15 and over who are illiterate
- Indicator A2: Daily kilojoule supply of poor
- Defined as the ratio of average food Calories consumed by poor to the
average number of Calories needed to sustain a person at normal levels
of activity and health
- Indicator A3: Malnourished children under five
- Defined as the percentage of children, from one to five years of age
who are more than two standard deviations from the median weight for age
of the reference population (or WHO standards).
- Indicator A4: Social safety net
- Support to the population provided by the city locally or nationally.
- Indicator A5: Unemployment rates by sex
- Defined as the average proportion of unemployed during the year, as
a fraction of the (formal) workforce, by sex.
- Indicator A6: Employment growth
- Defined as the average annual growth rate of the number of (formally)
employed men and women, aged 15 and above, during the last 5 years.
- Indicator A7: Child labour
- Defined as the number of employed or economically active persons under
15 years of age.
- Indicator A8: Minimum wage coverage
- Defined as the proportion of the economically active population whose
wage or salary income is covered by minimum wage legislation.
- PRODUCTIVITY Indicator A9: City investment
- Defined as gross capital formation in the city, divided by city product.
- Indicator A10: Airport activity
- Defined as the average monthly number of passengers having used the
airport (both for departure and arrivals) during the year.
- HEALTH AND EDUCATION
- Indicator A11: Expenditure on social services
- Defined as the total expenditure, both capital and recurrent, public
and private, on social services in US dollars per person.
- Indicator A12: Life expectancy at birth
- Defined as expected number of years till death for a new-born child.
- Indicator A13: Infectious diseases mortality
- Defined as the proportion of deaths due to infectious diseases.
- Indicator A14: School enrollment rates
- The percentage of children of eligible age, by sex, who are enrolled
in: (a) primary school, (b) secondary school.
- Indicator A15: Adult literacy rate
- Defined as proportion of adults who can read and write a simple paragraph
about their everyday life.
- Indicator A16: Tertiary graduates
- Defined as the proportion of male graduates in all adult males, and
female graduates in all adult females.
- SOCIAL INTEGRATION
- Indicator A17: Refugees
- Defined as percentage of the population who are refugees.
- Indicator A18: Deaths due to violence
- Defined as the proportion of deaths in the city in the past three years
that have occurred as a result of violence.
MODULE 2 :- INFRASTRUCTURE
- ACCESS AND AFFORDABILITY
- Indicator A19: Cost to household income ratios
- Defined as median expenditure on services divided by median household
income or (a) water, (b) sewerage, (c) electricity.
- Indicator A20: Source of water
- Percentage of households obtaining water as a primary source from:
(a) piped connection, (b) communal tap, (c) vendor or truck, (d) well,
stream, lake or dam, (e) others.
- Indicator A21: Piped water supply reliability
- Defined as average number of hours per year that households in the
city are without piped water.
- Indicator A22: Water leakage
- Defined as percentage of piped water unaccounted for and lost through
leakage, seepage or unauthorised use.
- Indicator A23: Sewage disposal
- Proportion of households with the following types of latrine facilities:
(a) sewerage pipe, (b) underground individual, (c) underground communal,
(d) pan collection, (e) open ground or trench, (f) other.
- Indicator A24: Public latrines
- Defined as the number of public latrines per 10000 population.
- Indicator A25: Electricity price
- Defined as the price of electricity in US dollars per kwh.
- Indicator A26: Line losses
- Defined as percentage of power supplied to the city that is unaccounted
for or lost before reaching final destination.
- Indicator A27: Capacity to load ratio
- Defined as peak load to certified capacity ratio.
- Indicator A28: Call completion rate
- Defined as proportion of calls made which connect and are not interrupted.
- INFRASTRUCTURE OPERATIONS
- Indicator A29: Operating to staff ratios
- Defined as proportion of operating costs spent on staff, for all authorities
providing the following services in the metropolitan area: (a) water, (b)
sewerage, (c) electricity.
- Indicator A30: New connections to staff ratios
- Defined as number of new connections per annum divided by number of
staff in supplying authorities for the following services (a) water, (b)
electricity, (c) telephone.
- Indicator A31: Revenue to operation cost ratio
- Defined as percentage of all operating costs met from own-source revenues
in the following services: (a) water, (b) sewerage
MODULE 3 :- TRANSPORT
- Indicator A32: Transport facilities
- Defined as the proportion of deaths per thousand in the last year from
transport related causes.
- Indicator A33: Fuel price
- Defined as the price in US cents per litre, including tax, of: (a)
petrol (gasoline), (b) diesel, (c) LPG or CNG.
- Indicator A34: Transport household budget share
- Proportion of total household income spent on all forms of travel by:
(a) all households, (b) poor households.
- Indicator A35: Transport fuel consumption
- Defined as the annual number of litres per person of transport fuel
(excluding aviation fuel) consumed.
- ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE
- Indicator A36: Length of road per vehicle
- Defined as total length of roads in km divided by total number of road
vehicles, for (a) surfaced roads, (b) unsurfaced roads
- Indicator A37: Road congestion
- Defined as the proportion of roads with Volume/Capacity >0.8 during
- ROAD VEHICLES
- Indicator A38: Vehicles failing emission standards
- Defined as proportion of road vehicles which do not meet local emission
- Indicator A39: Automobile fuel consumption
- Average fuel consumption in litres per 100 km for automobiles for:
(a) the whole fleet, (b) new cars.
- Indicator A40: Pedestrians killed
- Defined as proportion of road fatalities who are pedestrians.
- PUBLIC TRANSPORT
- Indicator A41: Public and mass transport seats
- Defined as number of public transport seats per 1000 population.
- Indicator A42: Cost recovery from fares
- Defined as the ratio of fares collected by public transport authorities
to operating costs.
MODULE 4 :- ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
- AIR QUALITY
- Indicator A43: Air pollution concentrations
- Number of days per annum that WHO standards are exceeded, an average
annual measured concentrations for the following pollutants: (a) SO2, (b)
NOx, (c) CO, (d) O3, (e) SPM, (f) Pb
- Indicator A44: Emission per capita
- Total emissions in tonnes per capita per annum of: (a) SO2, (b) NOx,
- Indicator A45: Acute respiratory deaths
- Defined as percentage of deaths due to acute respiratory disease
- Indicator A46: Percent of DOB removed
- Defined as average fraction of BOD removed in major wastewater receiving
- Indicator A47: Cost of wastewater treatment
- Defined as average cost in US dollars per cubic metre of water treated
- Indicator A48: Lowering of groundwater table
- Defined as the lowing of the groundwater table in cm in the past year
- Indicator A49: Waste water recycled
- Defined as percentage of waste water re-used as 'grey water' for industrial
processes or similar
- Indicator A50: Level of treatment
- Per cent of water subject to (a) primary treatment, (b) secondary treatment,
(c) tertiary treatment
- SOLID WASTES
- Indicator A51: Biodegradable waste
- Defined as percentage of all solid waste which is bio-degradable (composed
of organic matter)
- Indicator A52: Recycling rate
- Percentage of (a) paper, (b) glass, and (c) aluminium disposed which
- Indicator A53: Average cost of waste disposal
- Defined as cost in US dollars per tonne of solid waste disposal, for
those wastes which are formally disposed through refuse collection.
- Indicator A54: Cost recovery
- Defined as percentage of costs of formal waste disposal which is recovered
as charges from producers of the waste.
- Indicator A55: Industrial waste generation
- Generation per capita per annum of: (a) industrial wastes, (b) toxic
wastes, (c) ratio-active wastes.
- RESOURCES DEPLETION
- Indicator A56: Energy usage per person
- Defined as the total energy usage per annum per person in metric tonnes
of coal equivalent.
- Indicator A57: Fuelwood usage
- Defined as fuelwood usage in tonnes per person per annum
- Indicator A58: Renewable energy usage
- Defined as proportion of energy derived from renewable sources (hydro,
wind, geothermal and solar electricity, combustion of animal wastes, fuelwood
where this is being replaced through reforestation).
- Indicator A59: Food consumption
- Defined as daily Calorie consumption per person.
- DISASTER MITIGATION
- Indicator A60: Disaster mortality
- Defined as proportion of deaths during last ten years which are due
to natural disasters.
- Indicator A61: Housing on fragile land
- Defined as the number of dwellings in the city which are located on
land which is subject to natural disasters.
- Indicator A62: Fatal industrial accidents
- Defined as number of deaths from industrial accidents during last year.
- URBAN ENHANCEMENT
- Indicator A63: Green space
- Defined as percentage of green space in built up area.
- Indicator A64: Monument list
- Defined as number of buildings in city on heritage or monument lists.
MODULE 5 :- LOCAL GOVERNMENT
- Indicator A65: Change in real per capita total revenue
- Average annual change in real per capital income over a three-year
- Indicator A66: Change in real per capital own-source revenues
- Defined as average annual change in real per-capita own-source revenues
over a three-year period.
- LOCAL PARTICIPATION
- Indicator A67: Elected and nominated councillors
- Defined as total number of elected and of nominated local government
representatives by sex, per 10000 metropolitan population, by sex.
- Indicator A68: Voter participation rates, by sex
- Defined as percentage of adult population (having reached voting age)
who voted in the last municipal election.
- Indicator A69: Number of associations per 10000 population
- Defined as number of voluntary non-profit organisations, including
NGOs, political sporting or social organisations, registered or with premises
in the city, per 10 000 population.
- Indicator A70: Citizen involvement in major planning decisions
- Indicator A71: Decentralised district units
- Defined as number of separate local governments or administrative units
(quarters, wards, regions or similar) which are responsible for provision
of more than two local services.
MODULE 6 :- AFFORDABLE AND ADEQUATE HOUSING
- ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE HOUSING
- Indicator HA1: Mortgage affordability
- Defined as proportion of households who are eligible for and can afford
the maximum loan on a median priced formal sector house.
- Indicator HA2: Excessive housing expenditure
- Defined as proportion of households in the bottom 40% of incomes who
are spending more than 30% of their incomes on housing.
- Indicator HA3: Economic share of housing
- Defined as the proportion of national or city product due to rent or
imputed rent of dwellings.
- Indicator HA4: Transaction costs
- Defined as proportion of the value of a median-priced formal sector
house which must be spent to both buy and sell the house.
- Indicator HA5: House price appreciation
- Defined as the average annual real percentage of change of house prices
over a five year period.
- ADEQUATE HOUSING FOR ALL
- Indicator HA6: Overcrowding
- Defined as the percentage of households who are in housing deemed to
have too few bedrooms for a family of that type.
- Indicator HA7: Households per dwelling
- Defined as the ratio between the total number of households and the
total number of occupied dwelling units of all types in the urban area.
- Indicator HA8: Inadequate housing
- Defined as the proportion of dwellings that are deemed to be inadequate
or in need of major repairs.
- Indicator HA9: Indoor plumbing
- Defined as the percentage of dwelling units which contain a complete
unshared bathroom within the unit.
- Indicator HA10: Squatter housing
- Defined as the percentage of the total housing stock in the urban area
which is currently occupying land illegally.
- Indicator HA11: Homelessness
- Defined as the number of people per thousand of the urban area population
who sleep outside dwelling units (eg on streets, in parks, railroad stations
and under bridges) or in temporary shelter in charitable institutions.
- Indicator HA12: Owner occupancy (by sex)
- Defined as the percentage of households which own the dwelling units
which they occupy for (a) all households, (b) female headed households.
- Indicator HA13: Vacant dwellings
- Defined as the percentage of the total number of completed dwelling
units which are presently unoccupied.
- RURAL HOUSING
- Indicator HA14: Rural water/electricity connection
- Defined as the percentage of rural dwelling units with a water or electricity
connection in the plot they occupy.
- Indicator HA15: Permanent rural housing
- Defined as the percentage of rural dwelling units which are likely
- last twenty years or more
- given normal maintenance and repair, taking into account locational
and environmental hazards (eg floods, typhoons, mudslides, earthquakes).
- Indicator HA16: Rural home ownership
- Defined as the percentage of rural residents who own their dwellings.
- Indicator HA17: Rural house price to income
- Defined as the ratio of the median free-market price of a rural dwelling
unit and the median annual rural household income.
MODULE 7 :- HOUSING PROVISION
- Indicator HA18: Land availability
- Defined as the number of serviced blocks currently available divided
by the present construction rate in dwellings per month (annual average).
- Indicator HA19: Planning permission multiplier
- Defined as the ratio between the median land price of an unserviced
plot on the urban fringe given planning permission for residential development,
and the median price of a nearby plot in rural/agricultural use without
- Indicator HA20: Formal land transaction
- Defined as the percentage of the metropolitan area covered by a land
registration system which allows for buying, selling, long-term leasing,
or mortgaging urban land.
- Indicator HA21: Development time
- Defined as the median length in months to get approvals, permits, and
titles for a new medium-sized (50-200 unit) residential subdivision in
an area at the urban fringe where residential development is permitted.
- Indicator HA22: Cost recovery
- Defined as the percentage of total infrastructure costs recovered from
new developments during the year.
- Indicator HA23: Minimum lot size
- Defined as the minimum lot size for a single family housing unit in
a new 50-200 unit residential subdivision.
- Indicator HA24: Land development controls
- Defined as a composite of questions on land use and building code regulations.
- Indicator HA25: Credit to value ratio
- Defined as the ratio of new mortgage loans for housing last year to
total investment in housing (in both the formal and informal sectors) last
- Indicator HA26: Housing loans
- Defined as the proportion of dwellings that have housing loans from
the formal financial sector.
- Indicator HA27: Mortgage-to-prime difference
- Defined as the average difference in percentage points between interest
rates on mortgages in both commercial and government financial institutions
and the prime interest rate in the commercial banking system.
- Indicator HA28: Mortgage-to-deposit difference
- Defined as the average difference in percentage points between interest
rates on mortgages in both commercial and government financial institutions
and the interest rate on one-year deposits in the commercial banking system.
- Indicator HA29: Arrears rate
- Defined as the percentage of mortgage loans which are three or more
months in arrears in both commercial and government financial institutions.
- Indicator HA30: Mortgage loans for women
- Defined as the percentage of mortgage loans granted to women to all
mortgage loans made last year.
- Indicator HA31: Construction cost
- Defined as the present replacement cost (labour, materials, on-site
infrastructure, management and contractor profits) per square meter of
a median priced dwelling unit.
- Indicator HA32: Construction time
- Defined as the average time, in months, required to construct a median
- Indicator HA33: On-site productivity
- Defined as the man-hours per square metre on a typical median-priced
dwelling in the formal construction sector.
- Indicator HA34: Industry concentration
- Defined as the percentage of new formal-sector housing units placed
on the market by the five largest developers (either private or public)
- Indicator HA35: Employment
- Defined as the percentage of all employment that is engaged in the
construction of residential dwelling units.
- Indicator HA36: Wage labour
- Defined as proportion of on-site building employees who are employed
as wage labour.
- TAXES AND SUBSIDIES
- Indicator HA37: Effective taxation rate by tenure
- Defined as the nett annual housing-related taxation per dwelling paid
by households to governments, in US dollars, for (a) owner occupied housing,
(b) private rental housing, (c) public housing.
- Indicator HA38: Nett housing outlays by government
- Defined as the total expenditure by all levels of government on housing
in the current year, nett of all housing related receipts from the public,
taken as a percentage of total government expenditure.
- Indicator HA39: Property tax rate
- Defined as the percentage of the market value of the median-priced
dwelling unit which is collected as annual property tax.
- PUBLIC HOUSING
- Indicator HA40: Public housing stock
- Defined as the percentage of the total number of dwelling units in
the urban area that is owned, managed and controlled by the public sector.
- Indicator HA41: Privatised public stock
- Defined as the percentage of the total number of dwelling units previously
constructed or managed by the public sector hat have been privatised.
- Indicator HA42: Public housing production
- Defined as the total production of public housing units as a fraction
of all formal housing units produced during the year.
- Indicator HA43: Social rent to income
- Defined as the ratio of the median annual rent of a public housing
dwelling unit and the median household income of renters of public housing.
- Indicator HA44: Waiting time
- Defined as the average time on waiting lists before allocation of public
- Indicator HA45: Operating subsidies
- Defined as the ratio of rent payments to operations costs for public
- Indicator HA46: Administrative costs
- Defined as the administrative cost of operating public housing taken
as a fraction of the estimated market rental value of the dwellings.
- Indicator HA47: Tenant management
- Defined as proportion of social housing stock managed by tenants, completely,
partly or jointly.