The Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) was conceived to enable local communities greater participation in the benefits from wildlife, especially from hunting safaris. The programme is based on the concept that each local community develops institutions which enable the costs and benefits from using natural resources to be more closely linked.
Local communities are however finding that the opportunity cost of living with wildlife sometimes far outweigh the benefits (2). Moreover the benefits are meant to be of a social and collective nature, as such they do not go very far in guaranteeing the individual household subsistence. This explains the reason why crop production is perceived as vital in these areas. Unfortunately, more often than not, the crops are destroyed by the very animals the community is protecting and the individual is put in the mortal risk of being gored by a buffalo, or some other wild animal.