Urban and Industrial |
Air Quality Assessment,
Management and Optimization
Road traffic: is usually the major contributor to urban air pollution with anything from 50 to 80% of total emissions. In addition, emisison from traffic are near ground level, and this will create much higher values of local ambient ground level pollution people are exposed to as compared to elevated industrial stacks.
Emisison from vehicles with internal combustion engines (predominantly petrol or diesel) depend on the type and efficiency of the engine, fuel quality, weight of the car, driving conditions (mainly speed and accelleration), engine temperature (cold start fraction, and road characteristics (surface, slopes).
For the complex combinations of these parameters, emission coefficients can be found in the literature,
for the major groups such aspassenger cars, buses, light and heavy duty vehicles (LDV, HDV),
Additional emissions are fugitive emissions of VOC from the fuel system, and particulates from road abrasian, winter salting and sanding, and breaks.
Considering the entire life-cycle, The biggest emisisons however, are generated during the production of a car.
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