9. TEST CASES: APPLICATION EXAMPLES
To test the practical applicability of the proposed approach, and to gain practical experience that will provide valuable feedback for further refinements, a number of concrete, practical test cases are foreseen: five test cases in five different countries, each with a different emphasis and institutional framework.
All test cases build on existing technical training infrastructure and courses available to and provided by consortium members, and an existing base of customer institutions and trainees. This not only provides a unique qualified audience; it also offers the possibility for a comparative evaluation of the approach compared with the classical methods used up to date.
The test applications will involve both industrial clients as well as public institutions, and cover aspects of both internal and external safety and emergency plans and preparedness.
Test Case 1: UK
The test case will be done in collaboration with the safety department of a major chemical industry (to be selected from current DNV clients). The set of scenarios will be selected from the set of scenarios, which are part of the onsite emergency plan or have been identified by risk assessment. The test case will include escape of toxic / flammable gas and the possibility of ignition / escalation or dispersion towards neighbouring populations, depending on operator response.
The test case will focus on the clarity of the accident modeling, the simulation of the sequence of events and the correct and timely response of the onsite employees in charge and the effectiveness in preventing escalation or other major consequences. The test case would be appropriate for employees of a wide spectre of education and job responsibilities. It would be appropriate for site operation managers, safety mangers and operators.
The initial training will take place in a suitable training centre in small teams. This should facilitate learning through team discussions and would encourage teamwork and In addition, the test case will also include remote access of the training tool for selected individuals for continuing training and refresher courses. Some certification will be included to motivate the trainees. The course will be assessed by all parties involved, including trainees and trainers and compared with the more traditional practices used in the chemical industry.
Test Case 2: Italy
The test case will be designed and run in collaboration with the Top Management of some Seveso classified plants in Filago (Ponte S.Pietro) chemical area in Northern Italy (like BAYER, BORREGAARD, BOZZETTO, DSM, FAR/FARCOL, FILLATTICE) local Fire Fighting Brigade and Public Health Authority (ASL), Prefettura and local Administration and Municipalities (Consorzio Servizi Ecologici - Ecological Service Consortium di Filago, Madone e Bottanuco). It will implement Seveso II requirements and its Italian former implementation (DM 16/3/1998), specific for information and training of workers, visitors and population for Seveso class sites.
Test Case 3: Spain
In Spain there are three main locations where large chemical plants locate: Tarragona, Huelva and Algeciras (Cadiz Province). In all three cases, there are towns nearby and concerns about both the interior and exterior emergency management plans is important in the nearby population, the authorities and the industrial management involved. All three locations include sites managed by major multinational companies like: DOW, ICI, Hoechst, Repsol, Cepsa, Basf, Kodak, etc.; industries cover the whole cycle from refining crude oil, to basic chemical industries, fine chemical industries and pharmaceutical. For many years now P07 has been working with the association of industrial chemical industries at Tarragona (named AEQT) and Huelva (named AIQB) in providing state of the art training activities. This co-operation goes back for more than seven years. The approach with both organisations will be to work on three levels: top management, technical management and regular workers. In addition, the test case will attempt to provide a remote training facility to provide access to regular citizens in the neighbourhoods.
Test Case 4: Portugal
The Aveiro lagoon, located at the mouth of the Vouga River, is one of the most important wetlands in Portugal and a Corine classified biotope. The transition from a maritime to a fluvial and terrestrial ecosystem provides the conditions for a rich landscape and a great diversity of biotypes. The system is the habitat for a large number of species, some of them endangered, and a potential location for tourist activities.
The availability of water and the easy access to important throughways has, however, attracted to the region a large number of small industries and a few large ones. A paper mill plant and a large chemical complex are the main causes of concern for potential industrial accidents. The urban and industrial development has put pressure on the environment, a problem that has been neglected until recently. In 1989, IPE-ADP, a large public utility holding and the local municipalities have created SIMRIA, a company which aims at the resolution of the pollution problems in the lagoon and the promotion of environmental quality. This company is now responsible for the construction and management of a large system that collects, treats and disposes sewage from 10 municipalities, 500'000 inhabitants and a large number of small and large industrial sites. About 125 MEuro are to be invested in the region, from 1997 to 2000.
Test Case 5: Switzerland
The intended audience for the Swiss test case is on cantonal level the responsible authorities including the police, chemical intervention forces, fire brigades, emergency staff, other cantonal services and the Swiss federal railways (or other private railway companies). In Switzerland it might be possible that in an emergency in a long railway or road tunnel co- operation between authorities and services of two different cantons (and a railway company) is required. In addition the system may interest on federal level the Swiss federal office of transport (SFOT) and the Swiss federal office of roads (SFOR) as execution authorities and supervisory planning authorities which have to look upon the standards of safety measures including preparedness and training.
The assessment of transportation emergencies is characterised in the first phase by a need of accurate information about the full hazard potential of the loading and about the effective damage (identification phase). In any accident case, the task of the emergency forces on the accident site is to rescue people in danger and to gather information about the emergency situation. In this phase, the commander on site has no support from outside; his decisions can only rely on his knowledge about the situation and his experience. In order to enhance decision making process by simulation of such emergency situations, a demonstrator for a training system for decision support will be developed, concerning both railway and road transportation accidents including tunnel situations (long road- or railway-tunnels). The management of a major emergency can be divided into two principal phases:
For tunnel emergencies, special scenarios for different constructive types of tunnels, as well as for different ventilation systems or regimes have to be developed. The RMT and the modeling have to consider the very special conditions in a tunnel. The identification phase will follow in principle the same aspects mentioned before (road and railway). In a tunnel emergency the evaluation phase has to consider that hazards and consequences are strictly controlled by the tube-like space (modeling the dispersion of toxic gases, modeling of explosions and fires including oxygen consumption, heat radiation distances, modeling of air flow regimes). The DSS will be based on the results of the "tunnel-simulations" help the emergency forces to choose the right intervention equipment, access strategy or the necessary action for the tunnel ventilating system.
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